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Lecture 4

HIST124 Lecture 4.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 124
Steven J Maynard

HIST124 – New France and Hierarchies of the Soil I. Coureur de Bois vs. Habitant II. Nouvelle France A. From Fur Trade Outpost to Royal Colony B. Seigneurial Land System C. The Feudal Burden i. Cens et rentes ii. Corvee iii. Lods et ventes iv. Banalite D. Hierarchies: Seigneur/Clergy/Habitant E. E. The Family Economy and the Productive Household i. Marriage and babies F. The Seigneurial Social Formation G. The Habitant: Backward Peasant or Logical Farmer? H. Internal Contradictions of the Social Formation III. L’Acadie: Same Social Formation/Different Society A. Why Feudalism Didn’t Work out in Acadia B. A peasant utopia? C. The Neutral French D. Church and Society in Acadia E. Le Grand Derangement  France claims North America for the first time in the 1500s (Cartier)  1608  Samuel began a settlement in Quebec  These efforts were not very successful  1663  Louis XIV decides to turn Quebec into a royal colony and things start to pick up the pace  King gave you land, and in return, the seigneurs had too bring colonists over to populate the area  Population rapidly increased Seigneurial System:  Today  Free hold land system (the right to private property)  In most of Europe, the conception of land ownership was very different (Nulle terre sans seigneur  no land without a seigneur)  Who owns the land in a seigneurial system: The King, the farmer (the habitant, person to purchase land from),  Seigneur  had the right to make demands of the Habitant in order for them to keep their property  Cens et rentes  annual money/produce that the habitant had to give to the seigneur annually  Cens  small payment  Rentes  large additional payment  Covee  payment in labour  Lods et ventes   Seigneur had to provide a mill (habitants had to use the mill that belonged to their seigneur)  Banalites  gave seigneurs a 5% cut of the habitant’s wheat  The weight of the feudal burden in New France was not negligible  Many people had difficulty of getting out of debt  The habitants could never accumulate a surplus  Those who worked (habitants), those who fought, those who prayed (clergy)  Seigneur had social prestige (special pew in church, prominent place in community/rituals)  The family was most important to the survival of the habitants  The productive household  most goods were produced/manufactured in the home  New Frace/Quebec High Growth Rate  Marriage was extremely important, Les Filles du Roi  married quickly, goal was to make babies  The church had its own seigneurys, had a right to all of the harvest, took collections from habitants, people h
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