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HIST 124
Steven J Maynard

Week 8: Setting the Stage for Liberal Capitalism: Immigration, 1760-185029 October, 2012 I. Paupers and Other Peeps A. A Pre-condition of Liberal Capitalism B. Europe Shovels Out its Paupers II. The Loyalists Are Coming!: 1783/84 -Maritimes get 2000, 2000 move to Québec, 7500 move to east Ontario -Loyalists get province of Upper Canada, 1791 constitutional act A. The Loyalist Myth: A Conservative Canada -MYTH: people of delicate breeding, high social status, bring conservative political attitude to Canada, elitist, believed hierarchical systems -TRUTH: humble artisans and farmers, many were free blacks and escaped slaves, 200 loyalists natives (6 nations Iroquois), some were well to do and brought slaves with them (minority) B. Class and Race: The Loyalists in Shelburne, NS -largest urban centre in 1780s Shelburne NS -May 4, 1783 ships carry 3037 loyalists, eventually grew to 6835, 4 largest settlement in east -jails, prisons, dungeons, inns, taverns, 29 taverns in the little town, was supposed to be the citadel which would vindicate the loyalists against the Americans. -by 1767 many had deserted -people who came up came from new England cities, urban artisans, didn’t draw upon the available economy (fishing) -problem of always defending their rights to the British, constantly fighting about what they deserved -wanted to be represented in local governing body -in the face of this demand, British governor exploded, think the same revolution will happen in Shelbourne that happened in the 13 Colonies -wanted 5000 acres each in St. John, NB. The worse off were angry that some would get these lands while others didn’t -election riot ensues, people called in to keep these groups apart -“submit not to petty tyrants” -Act against tumults and disorders, stops the circulation of petitions (jail and fines) -outcry with a petition, gov’t most oppressive tyranny (revolution or move back to America were their options) C. Loyalists Divided: Conservative or Republican? -minority were politically conservative -largely a product of the British themselves, not the loyalists who come up with elitist notions, believed too much democracy caused the revolution -small amount of people in maritimes were Anglican, but became the official religion (king’s college only Anglican, only 1/5 of the population were Anglican) D. The Black Loyalists -not snobby stereotype -during revolutionary war, British said if they come fight for the 13 colonies they will give them their freedom, desert owners and fight for British -black person who was not a slave was a strange notion, declared them part of the human species. -often skilled craftsmen -some were free but some were slaves brought by the white loyalists -all were treated poorly -if they had a party/dance it was considered a riot -given tiny and infertile lots when pushed out -so poor they had to eat their own pets in winter of 1784 -just wanted land and freedom -expedition to Sierra Leone to find it, many emigrated to Africa -today they are still called Nova Scotians III. From the Celtic Fringe A. Three Periods of British Immigration i. 1760-1800: Stay or Go, It’s Up to You -permanent settlements weren’t allowed ii. 1800-1846: Government Assisted Passage -people being pushed off the land are so desperate they come here and state begins to enthusi
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