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HIST 124
Steven J Maynard

Week 9- Rebellion, Reform, and the Triumph of Liberalism 5 November, 2012 I. The Rise of Liberal Capitalism: Economic Development and Political Power, 1790-1850 -widespread popular discontent II. Economics: Lower Canada A. Demographic Growth -population growth -even though French were being swamped on all sides by English speaking immigrants, they internally experienced rapid demographic growth -seigneurial system out, free hold land system in B. From Fur Trade to Timber Trade: Proletarianization -trade routes getting longer and therefore more expensive, Montreal loses it‟s power as center of fur trade -beavers are gone, fur trade pushes further west -turns to timber instead (wood, ships) -nature of the work changes: timber trade the canal-ers are selling their labour for money- characteristic of capitalist economies C. Agricultural Crisis: Exodus from Countryside to City -crops gone by wheat midge -many began to starve -seigneuries are full -habitants forced to leave and move to the city -bring cholera epidemic -wear stigma of disease, prejudice between rural and urban people -after 1833 deep economic crises -perfect storm -hungry habs and irish turn to rebellion D. 1830s: Economic Crisis III. Economics: Upper Canada A. the Family Compact -John Graves Simcoe wants colony based on elites: torries/ the family compact B. Crown/Clergy Reserves -1/7 of land held for gov‟t. another 1/7 was to support state church (church of England) C. “Official Settlers” vs. Immigrant Settlers -people also given land on account of service to british (up to 5000 acres) -“official” settlers who didn‟t have to go to their land, just held it until it was worth something -huge lots of empty, valuable land just lying around -immigrants given inferior plots, forced to be there, work, build house, build a road -1.5-3 acres a year cleared -a lifetime to establish a moderate sized farm -another rebellion, immigrants treated unfairly IV. Politics: Lower Canada A. Elected Assemblies vs. Appointed Legislative Councils -1791 constitutional act established oligarchy in upper and lower Canada B. French/English Conflicts -lower assembly represented by French candians -english dominated assembly, over 60% or gov‟t but cultural minority in MTL. -lower party, nationalists led by Louis-Joseph Papineau C. Louis-Joseph Papineau and the Parti patriote -divided being -bourgois, owned large seigneury but also aware of plight of French candians -speeches about democracy, designed to appeal to the masses -assembly adopts his 92 resolutions D. 92 Resolutions, 10 Resolutions, Rebellion -long list of grievances -wanted both houses to be elected -Ste Jean Babtiste society formed -patriots‟ next move is to decide to refuse to vote the gov‟t any money -civil service goes unpaid, gov‟t virtually paralysed -10 resolutions made by English, rejected every demand the pats made -rural habitant become active in movement, push own issues like opposition to tithes, don‟t want to pay seigneurial rents anymore -nov 1837, armed conflict breaks out, British troops sent to lower canada to crush rebellion -1367 patriots locked up in mtl prison for involvement in St-Denis rebellion V. Politics: Upper Canada A. Alexander Lyon Mackenzie and the Radical Democrats -paper becomes leaving voice of rebels in upper Canada -denounces family compact, wins support of farmers -elect him to upper Canada party 1828 B. Labour vs. Banks and Land Companies -each time the assembly passes legislation to improve life for farmers, the assembly vetoed it -said he would abolish banks bc farmers were in debt -nov 1837 rebels draft institution, declared no corporations C. Montgomery‟s Tavern -assembles troops and began to march down yonge st. -militia stops them easily
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