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Lecture 4

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Department
History
Course
HIST 124
Professor
Steven J Maynard
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 4- New France and Hierarchies of the Soil 1 October, 2012 I. Coureur de Bois vs. the Habitant -the habitant put down permanent routes along the st Lawrence and constituted the majority of French speaking people -1534 Cartier -1608 Samuel de Champlain -1663 Louis XIV wants to turn Quebec into royal colony -1720 20,000 people lived in New France/ 1760 50,000 -Seigneurs given land, must have people live there permanently -we have freehold land system (own our land outright) II. Nouvelle France A. From Fur Trade Outpost to Royal Colony B. Seigneurial Land System -Seigneurs given land, must have people live there permanently -we have freehold land system (own our land outright) - “No land without a seigneur” -Who owns it? King of France (seigneur held the land for the king, in return for using the land they owed military service), the Farmer/ the Habitant (who settled on Seigneur‟s land- if they kept the land and paid rent, they could be comfortable in their ownership and even sell property), and the Seigneur (could take the land back if a habitant tried to tell it, they can take it away if the habitant didn‟t maintain the land- courts weren‟t fond of evictions though last resort) -Habitant and Seigneur both had rights to the land C. The Feudal Burden i. cens et rentes -Cens et Rentes were paid to the Seigneur by the Habitant ii. corvée -Corvée if the Hab. didn‟t have payment, then they paid in work iii. lods et ventes -Lods et Ventes, fee paid to the seigneur when land was sold iv. banalité -Banalités 5% cut to the Seigneur of the Habitant‟s wheat D. Hierarchies: Seigneur/Clergy/Habitant -Society devided between those who worked, those who fought, and those who prayed, first had to provide surplus to the other two -if not, they can go to court -seigneur had social prestige (special pew at church, etc.) -hab‟s family was most important to their survival -production occurred at household E. The Family Economy and the Productive Household -hab‟s family was most important to their survival -production occurred at household -used own equipment to make everything they needed i. marriage and babies -22 for women, 27 for men -remarried quickly after death of spouse -5 or 6 children to 8 or 9 children - 2500 to 70, 000 only 10,000 were immigrants -to correct gender imbalance, France exported marriageable young women (Les Filles du Roi) -main duty was to make babies -Church would dissolve a marriage that produced no children on grounds of a curse
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