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HIST 125 2011 Week 8 Nov 7 & 9.docx

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HIST 125

Week 7 Nov. 7 2011 Rise of Class  Birth of class society produced by industrial revolution  Ranks and order shifted to class language  18 century new different language  Middling sort & Lower Order became Middle Class and Working Class  New social groups forming  Marx claimed working class has been expanding proletariat alienated by employers  Men through actions of class create class awareness  E.P. Thompson – “Making of the Working Class” – emphasis on conflict like Marx had suggested  Plenty of agitation leading to reform in 1892  Process of ordering different between working and Middle Class  Workers disorganized, violent, chaotic  Middle class organized, peaceful, ordered  Participants formed concept of identity leading to separation between classes  Housing, space was a clear distinction between classes  Respectability, cleanliness, literature – good wholesome literature  Middle class attacked popular literature for vulgarity  Shift to wholesome entertainment away from blood sports, popular entertainment  Separation between working and middle cthss  Driven by several ideologies of the 19 century  Victorian Period  Laissez-faire – Adam Smith  Principle of Population – Malthus  Evangelicalism – William Wilberforce  Utilitarianism – Bentham  Smith challenged old economic policies  Tariffs diminished true potential for county  Wealth of Nations help to create liberalism within domestic economic affairs  Largely wrote for consumers  By 1830’s Wealth of Nations basic economic bible  Malthus – capability of man to reproduce themselves is more so than the ability to sustain them  Checks for population – positive checks -> wars, famine, epidemic, negative checks -> birth control, sex after marriage  If you support people would create a strain on the country – against welfare system  1820’s a lot of support against the ‘poor’ laws  1830’s ‘poor’ laws redone only widows and disable allowed to receive help  Evangelicalism pushed for reform  Preached poor should accept their place in life because that is what God gave you  Wilberforce supported Sabbortarianism, drunkenness, theatrical performances – anything fun  Society built on Christian morality  Track society – political and religious  Bentham – theory if possible acts one should choose the act that will create the most happiness for the most amount of people  His idea were twisted and education should be emphasized on useful things not emotional  S.D.U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge  March of intellect  Society at large have access to useful information  Works of science etc.  Workers + better citizens = middle class therefore better workers  Polarized ‘us’ and ‘them’  Strengthen resolve of worker class to better themselves  Great Reform Act – first effort to redraw political map of Europe  Gentrified parliament prior to the 1830’s  Patronage key stones to English Society  Political system still corrupt and elections a waste of time and needed reform  Many British people warmed to the representation used in France from the Revolution  Government becomes repressive after Louis XVI beheaded  Arbitrary arrests on grounds of suspicion of aiding the revolution  England no reforms  After 1815 much more awareness of the need for reform  Mass unemployment, high food prices, political unrest,  Corn laws – maintain artificial high prices by restricting foreign grain into the country  Much broader scale in all industrial centers  Expansion of news papers  Radical press, armed demonstrations  1819 mass meetings in London, Fear for parliament  Henry Hunt gave speeches outside of Manchester  Upwards some say 50,000 turned out  Out of fear of an uprising army sent to arrest Hunt  Exploit this bloodshed to promote more reforms  Whigs began to support reform more and more  Six Acts – banned unofficial military drilling, magistrates power to search houses or meetings, heavy taxes on radical papers, limitations on trial proceedings  Events of revolution held so much fear in Ruling class they were willing to do the distance to squash reforms  1827 pressure for reform built up to the point of burst  1830 Wellingtons government replaced by Whig party said to reform  The Swing Riots in Kent and Sussex = agricultural disturbances move to wage economy  Instead of hiring for a year it would hire during need of work  Peasants started to become aggressive putting government on edge of the workers potential  1831 Liberals push through a reform Bill  Shut down by the House of Lords = great riots  Great Reform Act: still room for abuse, but more people could vote; really just mid
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