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Week 12 208.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 208
Peter Campbell

Long essay question on the exam about aboriginal peoples, describing millers three categories, cooperation coercion  Provide as much evidence from other documents as you can for critique of millers approach, to strengthen argument  Short answer questions for each section, answer 2 of 4  French-Canadian Nationalist approach Week 12 Lecture 1 208 November 27 th Trudeau and Levesque Nation and state being referred to as the same thing dates back to the French Revolution  Trudeau  Starts talking about empires  Idea of the nation essentially evolves out of American and French Revolutions and the idea of the people being ruled by the consent of the governed  Makes a distinction between self-government and self-determination  Linkage of culture and self-determination  Self-government is “reasonable” self-determination is not because it is based on will and emotion  Argues that nationhood is a state of mind that requires the creation of a “national image”  What is the problem of creating a nation with French and English as equals, and a single national image  French-Canadian national image is French-Canadian, different than that of English-Canadians, so seems like assimilation.  In these discussions any cultures outside of English/French Canadians, as well as women, don’t exist.  For Trudeau, nationalism is outdated, it is the problem, federalism is the solution  What does Levesque say to this -Federalism is outdated, says there is a French-Canadian personality and an English- Canadian personality, so need a different “third personality”. -At the time of Confederation, this was referred to as a “new nationality” -French-Canadians were afraid of it because they knew it was going to be English Protestant -Now Levesque is making the same argument -It is not possible to create a third nationality that equally combines the French and English Canadian cultures -Argues that positives for English, there won’t be any more problem with the French, do not have to worry about keeping French happy and trying to make the country work -Opens up opportunity for English-Canadians to create a different English-speaking people than the United States -Quebec’s going to keep their own currency -What is the difference from this to federalism? -Why is Levesque holding back from full out independence? -Levesque identifies the core as French-Canadian culture as the language. -Catholicism has disappeared Paradoxes of Nationalism  Ramsay Cook argues that defeat and the fear of assimilation is an important part of French-Canadian culture  Nightmare of extinction and the dream of freedoms  Garneau says French-Canadians have found solace in the idea that they will one day be independent  Independence keeps French-Canadians from fearing assimilation  Jules Paul Tardivel (1851-1905) wrote a book called Pour La Patrie  calls for Quebec independence in a peaceful manner (1895)  Desire to free Quebec from non-Catholic influences  Conquest came about because French outnumbered by English  After Confederation French-Speaking Metis drowned in immigration from Europe, Scandinavia Levesque says English-Canada is civilized and will negotiate without violence  Levesque echoed Tardivel when he said that independence would come in a peaceful manner.  Cook’s point, that even within the independence movement itself there is still caution because with the wrong move French-Canada can suffer extreme damage Paradox:  Go back to Montreal school’s position on the Conquest  French administration and bourgeoisie decapitated  What will independence do for Quebec  Fully developed society and economy just like everyone else Brunet’s une societe normale  What’s the problem with this vision of the Quebecois capitalist class being a part of the development of Quebec’s own state?  Quebec is a welfare state, (gas prices extremely high due to high taxes).  Dealing with Quebecois capitalists that think more like American republicans than Quebecois socialists  They have a problem with state taxes  Government employees, labour movement, teachers (unionized, pensions) support  support independence?  The business classes, capitalists who have to deal internationally are major contributors to federalism?  Went from Anglophones speaking English, and immigrants speaking English to Anglophones speaking French and immigrants speaking French In a strange paradox, the Quebecois found themselves living with Anglophones who were going through the difficulties of learning a new language, just as their ancestors had to when they had to learn English to get anywhere in Quebec society  So this took of some of the edge of the resentment because English- Canadians were experiencing what they had to go through  Quebec Novelist Hubert Aquin the true nationalist wants independence  Nation must have a state  It may be that th
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