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Week 9 lecture 1 208.docx

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HIST 208
Peter Campbell

Week 9 Lecture 1 208 Nov.6 th Confederation  Lower Canada becomes Canada East  And Upper Canada becomes Canada West  Kingston first capital in 1840  “Responsible Government” 1848  Legislative council becomes the cabinet Cabinet ministers who advise the prime minister (not much changes)  Essentially the party in power now has control over patronage, instead of governor and council  1849 Governor Lord Elgin gives The Throne speech in English and French, shows again that educated Englishmen were bilingual*  Elgin signs Rebellion Losses Bill, signs bill that compensates those who lost property in rebellions of 1837-38; English in Quebec burnt down parliament buildings.  Annexation Manifesto 1851census reveals population of Canada West larger than pop of Canada East, Then English Canadians cry for rep. by pop.  Was fine before when French had more population  Now with larger English population they could control the government with rep by pop  1857 Ottawa becomes capital  57-64 Six governments hold power in Canada  Basically, Canadian governance doesn’t work and everyone knows it 1861-65  American Civil War  Raises question of how Canada can be defended  Convinces MacDonald of the dangers of a decentralized government  English Canadian view  French Canadian view that civil war happens when there is too much centralization from government  Significant support for the South, especially in French Canada, worried that North would conquer them 64 Sept. Charlottetown Conference, Oct. Quebec Conference try to win over Maritimes into confederation 1866 Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) Decide that if they invade Canada they can either put pressure on British to give Ireland independence, or pull troops out of Ireland.  Fenian raids in New Brunswick April and Niagara region May. 1867  Confederation happens Why does Confederation Happen? 1. Political deadlock, the system just is not working 2. Civil War/decentralization 3. British military reorganization  Crimean War, many soldiers dying of disease, Indian mutiny, Britain realizing need to reorganize army to be more effective. Want colonies themselves to take more responsibility and worry about own military so British can put more effort on their own as well. 4. Self-defence/Fenian Raids 5. Railways*  about British and Canadian investors who want to make money out of building of railways. A
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