November 8, 2012
We started with 4 provinces, then Manitoba, then BC, the PEI,
then Saskatchewan and Newfoundland joined together.
“Series of Linguistic Crisis”- reminded French Canadians they
were in a vulnerable state
Manitoba Schools Crisis- 1890
o Abolishes French as an official language. There were
few French speaking settlers, and therefore their
language wasn’t deemed special.
Wilfred Laurier becomes PM, and comes up with a deal with
the premier of Manitoba, Greenway. This allows religious
instruction for the last 60 minutes of the school day. Catholic
teachers were allowed to work in schools if there were 25
(rural) or 40 (urban) Catholic students. This was a very high
number, showing there was provisions against the Catholics
and French Canadians.
1905- Atonomy Bills
o Territory of Saskatchewan and Alberta enter
o Quebec fighting against centralization.
o Defenders of provincial autonomy- Canada has
coordinate sovereignty according to French Canadians,
they are against a hierarchical situation.
o The political reality was that the power was in the
federal government. Cartier was heavily in to railway
o 1878/9- John A Mcdonald created the “National Policy”,
which was a protective tariff on imports to encourage
internal manufacturing. The other 2 elements were the
Trans continental railway, and the settlement of the
west. Quebec conservatives hope that this settlement
will have a portion for French Canadians.
o Western Canada suppressed Canada culture (Louis
Riel), his death led to a massive revolt in Quebec.
Shortly after the Riel Rebellions, Honore Mercier was
elected as Quebec premier.
o In 1877, Laurier gives a speech to convince the Catholic
Church that they should not fear Liberals.
o The Liberal party were in power in Quebec from 1897-
o During this time, politics were governed in Quebec by
Lornes Gouin(1905-20), who was the followed from Louis Alexandre Tascheseau (1920-36) They supported
the place of the woman and the home and the ideals of
o 1920-30- ownership of Quebec’s natural resources by
USA companies is a small trade off to create jobs.
Northern Canada has a huge Francophone population
French Canada was one that was based on rural Catholic
values, which was threatened by English speaking Canadians.
French Canadian Nationalists had some of the highest birth
rates in the Western World. In a newspaper, L’Action
Francaise, in an ar