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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - How To Do the History of Sexuality.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 210
Steven J Maynard

“How To Do the History of Sexuality” Lecture Outline for 13 January 2014 I. History of the History of Sexuality A. Sexology: Krafft-Ebing, Ellis, Freud B. Anthropology: Mead & Malinowski C. Kinsey D. Feminism: Second-Wave; the Sex Wars E. Sexual Liberation Movements: Gay Lib; AIDS Activism; Queer F. The Bald Guy: History/Power/Resistance/Critique II. Thinking Sex Historically A. Sexual Acts vs. Sexuality B. Essentialism vs. Constructionism C. Sexual Meanings D. Sexual Regulation E. Sexual Politics INTRO: How did we get here? How did we get to study sexuality? The history of the history of sexuality/ historiography Look at the development of sexuality – social and historical themes that gave way to this course Get to common understanding of sex, sexual acts, sexual identities, etc. Will be very useful for the first assignment I. HISTORY of the HISTORY of SEXUALITY When people first began studying sexuality? When did we focus on sexuality? - 1880s? nd - 1970s? 2 wave feminism - Purity movement in the US (1880s)? - Freud? And his study th The beginings of it was during the late 19 century that they studied sexuality. See the emergence of branch of science and medicine sexology A. Sexology - Many sexologist; - Richard Moncraft earliest sexologist; published Psycopathia Sexualis in 1886s o Coined the terms sadism and masochism (S&M) o First aimed at judges and lawers – social deviance, call upon sexologist in court. The texts were aimed at the law o Often written in Latin to discourage common people to read the riske parts in the book - Havlock Ellis; publish 7 volum in 1897 on sexology o First volume is on sexual inversion now called homosexuality; an inversion of so called normal sexuality o Distinguished analytically bettwen homosexuality and transgender o Eonism – transgendered o When the book first appeared it was prosecuted under obscene; many people in society even objected the scientific study of sexuality - Sigmund Freud; in some ways innaccruate to call him a sexologist he was a psychologist. He stated that sexuality resides in the psyche than biology o Believed that we were all born peverse; all capable from deriving sexual pleasure in numerous ways; through childhood we went through 5 stages; ultimate outcome being  mature adult sexuality o If for whatever reason we get stuck or fixated in one of those stages it leads to nerocease in adulthood o Say stuck in the oral stage; (bitting their nails); candidate for psychoanalysis will discover that nail bittting will be linked to childhood trauma – oral fixation o Not so much the detail of Freuds theory; because Freud proposed the idea that the entire human personality was at base a sexual process, he proposed that human development could be explained via the sexual o Freudian theory is huge in sexual theory - All sexologist used similar approach – the Case History Approach - Tell sexual history and turn that into a case history; lots of people in late 19 c. wrote their own sexual history and mail it to the sexologists. That’s where they got their material. Compiled all the cases; got a variety of sexual cases and catalogued them into different categories. - Came up with exotic names for sexual behaviors/ not a neutral process - Normal and Abnormal; division we have been struggling with ever since - Moncraft  Normal sexuality = procreation - Pretty easy to cast sexologist as evil; more complicated than that o Ellis said that society should regard sexual abnormality not as deviance but just different th o Also got involved in early 20 c. campaigns to repeal harsh sex laws o Recognized that people with sexual abnormalities should not be prosecuted - The project of naming the sexuality is a very important one o E.g. Homo and Hetero Sexuality  First coined the term in 1889  Did not appear in the English language in 1892  First time English readers discovered homosexuality  David Helper: how is it possible unitil the 1800s there was no term coined for the vast majority. Only then did we get the concept of homosexuality and heterosexuality - Not simply describing sexuality that already existed; naming to help bring these sexuality into existence - How could yu be a homosexual or heterosexual before the creation of this notion - All points to the late 19 c. for the historical invention of sexuality - Before that time sexuality did not exist - Sexuality is everywhere! Most of us are conscious of having a sexual identity - How could it have failed to exist? Obviously sex was around but sexuality. Did not occur in the time prior to the invention of sexuality that it could be something you thought about yourself. Sex did take on a very different form; one of the forms it DID NOT take is the basis of your identity. - Difference between sexual acts and sexual identity - Prosecuted not for your sexuality but for sexual acts - Notion that sexuality could become something about your identity will be the late 19 c. th - Sexologist attached sexual acts to particular types of people/ Manifestation of a particular type of person o Important because not just trathng the history of a preexisting thing like sexuality o Why was it in the late 19 c. that this emerged B. Anthropologist: Mead and Malinowski - Mead – Coming of Age in Samoa, 1928 - Created a controversy - Not all culture organized sexuality in the same way - In her study of young Samoan women; delayed marriage and had casual sex not frowned upon. Young women enjoying having casual sex with societies approval – not like North America - Malinowski challenged Freudian sexual theories - Studied ____ - Demonstrated that Freuds ____ Complex was not universal - Anthropological work was important; cross-cultural comparaison - Societies organized sexuality in very different ways than North American stantards - Cultural relativism of sexuality – sexuality not the same for everyone, everywhere. In fact molded differently for different people everywhere - Freud thought that it was the same for everyone. C. Kinsey - Mid 20 c./ Modern sexologist - Sexual Behavior in the Human Male 1948/ Sexual Behavior in the Human Female in 195? - Anyone could read them, this created a huge cultural shock wave; lots of people reaing these reports - Reported on the pathologizing of early sexology; other guys judged, shouldn’t be judging - He saw sexuality as existing on this sexology – the Kinsey Scale - From 1 to 6; 1 exclusively heterosexual and 6 was exclusively homosexual. - Biggest finidng and what created the biggest shock to American culture was that most people were not on 1 or 6 and most people were mostly in the middle. Not exclusively either. - Sexual fluidity – hidden under heterosexual hegemony. D. Feminism: Sex Wars - Focused on gender and sexuality as well; mostly on the body - Women’s health movement; womens right to control their own body; the pill and abortion - Femenism in the 1980s new sex related issues emerged – prostitution and pornography - Created serious division – Femenist sex wars and feminist sex debates - Our Bodies, Ourselves – book/ Good Girls Bad Girls/ Sea Power/ Pleasure and Danger/ Improper Advances - What does that mean the feminist movement? Many different kinds of feminist and during these debates these differences came forward - Sexual objectification; sexual violence lead to the desire to censor pornography position of this branch of feminism. And take back the night – when women go out in the street to symbolically take back the night because they feel like they cannot walk alone at night - Different branch of feminism – agreed with the importance to confront sexual danger, worried abou the implication of heterosexuality and violence. They said yes that exists, it needs to be eradicated. But where is the freedom for womens sexual autonomy. Cannot always be about violence must be space for women to have sexual expression = Pleasure and danger. Women sexuality could be conceptualized between pleasure and danger. Insisted on both. Lead them to oppose sta
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