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Lecture 4

HIST 210 Week 4.docx

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HIST 210
Steven J Maynard

HIST 210: Week 4 January 27, 2014 First Nations, Two- Spirits, Three Genders: Race, Sex, and Colonialism - Harper claimed that Canada has no history of Colonialism – obviously not true - Dispossessing Aboriginal people of their lands, putting down the residential schools Berdaches and Manly- Hearted Women: Gender - The term "berdache" is seen as very offensive by many Two-Spirit and Native people because of its historical roots; It was first applied by European settlers as a derogatory term, meaning a submissive, effeminate man. The term "Two-Spirit" was created in 1990 as an English word to convey an identity already recognized by many Nations, and is usually the preferred and most respectful term. - Father Jacques Marquette, 1670s - Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan, 1680s th - George Catlin, “Ball Players,” Early 19 century - Paul Kane, “Assiniboine Hunting Buffalo.” Early 1850s Two Spirited People - Gender variant individuals within their communities. Fulfill one of many mixed gender roles in First Nations and Native American tribes. Third and fourth gender roles historically embodied by two-spirit people include performing work and wearing clothing associated with both men and women. At least four gender identities: masculine men, feminine men, masculine women and feminine women. - Two spirited people did marry someone of their same sex - Aboriginal people saw gender as performative. Gender is how we are performingour gender, rather than embedded in our biology – Two spirited people practiced this - Open gendered- Klal
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