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Queen's University
HIST 211
Caralee Daigle Hau

th Jan 6 , 2013 HIST 211: INTRO • The cold war could be said to have begun directly following the Second World War, or when the USSR first detonates its atomic weapons • Competition for supremacy between the US and allies (capitalist and liberal) and the USSR and its bloc (communist and social) • Political and economic competition battling through many mediums • Competition is expressed through foreign policy, domestic policy, and culturally • Joe McCarthy fronts the anti-communist movement in the US • Kitchen Debate o Krushev (then PM) and Nixon (then VP) debate head-to-head on culture in a mock US kitchen • Impact of individual leaders on the course of the Cold War o President FDR is replaced by Truman, and is a very different sort of president, with far less confidence and foreign policy experience o JFK ascending to presidency, and puts forth a rhetoric with crisis mentality • Various moments of possibility o Times when things could have transpired differently o Avoiding presentism • Two-way relationship between domestic and foreign policy o Eg: How can a nation claim to represent freedom when large portions of its own population did not possess the same measure of equality? • How the Cold War is a decades long game of chess, a game of action and reaction, not just to the two major players, but to many of other actors th Jan 8 , 2014 A Clash of Worldviews • Alexis de Tocqueville o Identified themes  Race relations in the US  Inevitable clash between US and Russia • American relies on individualism (freedom) • Russian is collective (servitude) • They begin from different points but attempt to expand their influences in the same fashion • American worldview th o Early 20 century, US has already grown its empire and power  Manifest destiny  Expansionism, but still isolationist o Will join WWI late, when its own interests (citizens and commerce) are threatened  The war will demonstrate American potential, and the importance of fighting abroad  Not scared by the fighting of the war o Wilsonsian Liberalism  Woodrow Wilson  Fourteen points • Summarize his ideas of the post-war world, and a world where the US would be far more powerful • End of imperialism, free seas, etc • Spheres of influence and balance of power • Self-determination of nations • Liberal democracy • Capitalism o Capital assets are owned privately and goods and services are created for a profit • Collective security • Soviet worldview th o Early-mid 19 century, Russia significantly in power o Autocracy, power residing with the Tsar  Whereas the rest of Europe shifts towards greater spread of power o Split in society  Marxists and Social Revolutionaries o The First World War hastens industrialization and puts strain on the nation o The Bolshevik revolution rejects Wilsonian Liberalism, establishing a collectivist communist state  Establishes a socialist economy based on the rule of the working class  Presumed the world capitalist system to be doomed o By early 1920s, new Bolshevik state has solidified itself, and some American began to wonder what this would mean for American policy in the future o Lenin and Stalin begin to wonder how power should be distributed in the new Soviet Union  Lenin wants power to be distributed, Stalin believes it should be centralized in Moscow  After Lenin’s death, Stalin becomes the leader and consolidates his power, o 1930s  Stalin purges party of those not favourable in the industrial sectors, military and intelligence agency  Soviet Union turns more and more inward as it distances itself from the capitalist world  The Great Depression questions viability of capitalism • Rise of interest in communism  Germany is recovering and rising again to power • Rearmament, expansion, etc…  Japan rises as a military and political threat • Japan invades Manchuria and begins to expand • 1933, US and USSR recognize each other, exchange ambassadors in response  Appeasement • Joseph C. Kennedy suggests German expansion is preferable to Soviet expansion • Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact, invasion of Poland, etc…, the War begins • WWII o US and USSR both remain neutral o 1941, German invasion of Russia’  Truman sees Germany and Russia going to battle as preferable, and suggests assisting the losing side to prolong the battle o 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor  US enters the war o Great Britain, US and USSR are the Great powers o Tehran “Big Three” Conference  Plan what the world may look like if the war is won  Stalin is concerned over Soviet security, wants territory for buffer state • Promised Baltic states and Poland • Stalin claimed he would, and could not, not force communism on these territories o Recovery was more significant • Others see Stalin as acting reasonably • Jan 13 , 2013 Origins of the Cold War • Expectations versus Reality o USSR wants  Peace and time to rebuild • Expansion would be a natural product, as Germany would leave a power vacuum in central and eastern Europe  To expand “the fatherland” • Secure borders  Heavy reparations from Germany • Keep territory promised to USSR with Soviet-German non-aggression pact • Ensure Germany would not rise again o US wants  “Four Policemen” • Roosevelt wanted out of Europe, and that the US, USSR, Britain and China would each respectively govern their own spheres • FDR recognized Soviet contribution to WWII victory, and that the USSR deserved a role in post-war governance  Domestic support • Calls for Wilsonian liberal democracy  Second front • Soviets are taking a large amount of the Nazi war machine’s force, and Stalin expected the Western allies to open a front in France • Cost of the War o Soviets  8.7 Million men and women to combat  18 million civilian casualties (90:1 Soviet deaths vs. American)  70,000 villages destroyed  65,000 km of railway track  Bridges, urban living space, agriculture, industry  Rapid demobilization left USSR with a large conventional force o US  400,000 casualties  Economic recovery from Great Depression  Booming industry • Roosevelt’s Death, ascension of Truman o FDR is seriously ill by the time of Yalta conference  Dies of stroke, Truman takes power o FDR’s policy set the stage for conflict, but Truman has far less experience  Doesn’t have one coherent policy belief, zig-zagging strategically  He was a Wilsonian  Truman aimed to be decisive, but was hasty • Came to believe that the US didn’t need the USSR as much as the USSR needed the US • Truman makes clear to Molotov that he expected the USSR to behave itself, and Molotov was not pleased at being treated as such • Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945) o FDR is increasingly ill, is therefore distracted and negotiations aren’t productive o European theatre of war is coming to a close o Discussing distribution of power, and territory  Will Poland be occupied by USSR, or independent?  Germany?  Soviet participation in Pacific war? o Agreements  Germany must surrender. Divided East/West.  Berlin to be divided into four zones of occupation.  Poland to be part of Soviet sphere.  In 2 or 3 months following the surrender of Germany (by August), USSR will join Pacific war • Soviets want territory lost in 1905, and other territory such as Kurile Islands and rights to key railroads o Part of the world US would reign over with “Four Policemen” theory o US policy-makers question abandoning Poland • The Bomb th o July 16 , 1945 (Successful testing) o Code name: Trinity o Alamogordo, New Mexico o Manhattan Project o Oppenheimer: “I am become Death, destroyer of worlds” • Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) o Begins the day after Trinity o Truman is now much more arrogant and confident about what he wants for the US o Churchill is replaced halfway through conference by Clement Atlee o Germany had been defeated in May, and split as per Yalta  Issues concerning more than one zone will be ruled by a council  Germany will not be able to produce military equipment, and metals, chemicals and machinery will be controlled and restricted  USSR is permitted reparations, but only from its own zones • East zones are more financially burdened o US recognizes Polish government (which has been put in place by USSR) so long as free and fair elections were to follow eventually • Hiroshima and Nagasaki o August 6, 1945, “Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima  80,000 immediate deaths, and 10s of thousands follow from radiation o August 9, 1945, “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki o August 15, Japan surrenders o Did Truman do so to prevent an invasion of mainland Japan?  Was it because of Japanese “fight-to-the-death” mentality?  Some claim Japan was already on the verge of defeat and merely wanted to end honourably, and so Truman wished to scare the USSR th Jan 15 , 2013 Creation and Consolidation of the Blocs • Postwar Europe o Cost of the war  Much higher for the USSR than for the US  American policy makers are concerned with economic plight and social strife the war has caused in Europe o Complete, and unparalleled economic and social instability  Germany and much of Eastern and Central Europe  Railway and power systems often non-operational  Financial systems destroyed or unstable  Cities bombed out  Social life in chaos o Instability could lead some to communism, as the capitalist system led to the great depression prior to the war • Rise of Communism o Belgium  1939: 9 000  1945: 100 000 o Greece  1938: 17 000  1945: 70 000 o Italy  1943: 5 000  1945: 1.7 million o Czechoslovakia  May 1945: 28 000  Sept: 750 000 o Even in the UK, there was a rise for support of socialism o US has deep seeded fear of what communism means, and what it could do if it spread to the US, and what Stalin would then do o Stalin wants to make sure that all border nations are friendly, and his want for global communist revolution comes second  Thus installs communist regimes in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria • At first the US is concerned with disarmament, but soon cares more for economic recovery, therefore industry would still be necessary • China is in the midst of civil war o Royalists, loyal to the government vs. communists, led by Chiang Kai-Shek • Japan is occupied by US forces, who aim to keep USSR out o Economy is near collapse • Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) are all unstable o Chi Minh demands France recognize his country’s independence • Possibility of Peace? o Stalin wants peace  Secure borders, time to recover  Realizes he cannot fight another war, especially against the US o Truman wants peace  Political position is precarious • Novice at foreign affairs, and populace is moving to the Right (he was a democrat) o But…  Fear of appearing weak • Stalin got through war through convincing his people that sacrifice would lead to utopia in the long term • Truman is a novice who is the leader of the free world, and must deliver on his rhetoric, while communism is rising around the globe o Public expresses strong anti-communist sentiment  Surprise attack syndrome • The legacy of Pearl Harbor • Stalin’s obsession with borders, and being inadequately prepared to defend  Rise in tension results from these factors and the conditions in Europe • Rhetoric o Rhetoric + Events = policies o Truman’s Navy Day Speech, October 1945  US is now concerned with recovery, and that would include Germany  End of isolationism  Reiterates strength of US forces, while assuring they only want peace  People should choose their own government without outside interference  Freedom of the seas,  Commitment to UN and International community  Aggression and surprise attacks would not be tolerated, and the atomic bomb will be held in sacred trust for all mankind • Implicitly declares themselves the dominant power  Wilsonian  Demands more democratic regimes in Eastern Europe o Stalin’s Election Day Speech, February 1946  Not a direct rebuttal, but similar in effect  Reasserts ideology  Soviets will prevail • Claims that communism has survived, and that the next war will be for workers’ revolution  Capitalism to blame for WWII • The “Iron Curtain” Descends o March 1946 o Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri (then opposition leader) o Is concerned that USSR is a real threat  Was against appeasement, and believes this is happening again o Reinforces Anglo-American ties, and exposes Soviet threat o Perceives threat of a communist fifth-column  Espionage,  Gouzenko exposes communist cells in Canada, US and UK o Compares Stalin and USSR to Hitler and Nazi Germany o First real call-to-arms o Stalin reacts, accusing the West of being reminiscent of Nazi Germany  Puts Stalin on the defensive, and both sides begin to appeal to ideology even more • International incidents o Japan  Economic collapse o Iran  Soviet troops have not left, and US encourages to resist soviet presence o Turkey o Czechoslovakia  Communist party takes over o Greece  Civil war has been raging between Left and Right  British intervene on the side of the Government  Opposing, Communist party, the KKE, decides on full scale war  Americans become really concerned  Greece is not yet part of the Soviet sphere yet  Americans decide to intervene directly • Truman Doctrine o Truman asks for money and troops to be sent to Greece to prevent communists from winning the war o The US primary objective is the creation of conditions in which nations are able to work a way of life free of coercion o Links the communists with coercion, subversion and control, and the US as the leader of the free world o Rhetoric becomes policy, with this request o Domino theory: spread of communism • Containment o Theory of George Kennan, American civil servant in Moscow o “Long telegram” o “The Sources of Soviet Conduct”  Explanation of Soviet motivations o Soviet expansionism is directly related to traditional Russian behaviour of suspicion and insecurity  No reasoning with them, therefore firm show of strength and firm hand is required o Mount show of counter-force to push back, if pushed o Ensures that the Cold War will remain cold, as it emphasizes maneuvering  It is an assumption of behaviour o Basis for American policy for the next four decades • The Marshall Plan (European Recovery Plan) o June 1947 o Rejects that capitalism in Europe is dead o Grants given to European countries to get American goods, stimulating their economy o Popular plan in the US, as it boosts their economy o Beneficial for Europe’s recovery and US economy o Capitalism saving capitalism • In response, the USSR creates the common form th Jan 20 , 2014 The Cold War at Home • Critical Analysis Assignment o What arguments, conclusions, sources, logic, are the articles using o May want to consider who the author of the article is o Brief summary of the topic  Two or three sentences at most o Compare and contrast articles  Why are they paired as such o Original research, or historiographical interpretation o Strengths and weaknesses o Clear thesis  Could be statement of which article is most convincing o Do not include too much summary o Do not include stylistic analysis o Chicago citation style • Historiography (two views) o Cold war and Postwar are the same  The Cold War is all-encompassing • Everything is influenced by Cold War concerns and culture  Impact on all aspects of daily life o “Cold War culture” is a misnomer  Not as pervasive as pervious school argues  Cold War does have an impact, but not on every aspect of life • American Home Front o Growing conservatism  Truman must react to this growth o Truman Doctrine introduces oversimplified language  Resonates deeply within American society  Religious evangelicals, racial segregationists, etc… o American public demands action against Communist threat o Truman traps himself in his own rhetoric  He is forced to take a firm anti-Red stance at home, since he emphasizes it abroad o Workplace  Taft-Hartley Act • Legislation (a.k.a. Management Relations Act) aims to limit power of unions • Union leadership must sign affidavit that they were not Communists • Truman attempted to veto this act, but his rule is overturned by Congress  Truman’s Loyalty Program (1947) • Reaction to critics saying he is not being tough enough on Communist • Loyalty checks to be performed by Hoover and the FBI • Truman was uneasy about the reach of the FBI, but is forced to do something o McCarthyisms  Senator Joe McCarthy  A leader, but not alone in anti-communist crusade • Most public anti-communist, but not necessarily the most important (Hoover was more so) • Anti-communist mascot  Impact of “loss of China” • Mao’s revolution  Skilled at getting and keeping attention • Used powerful black-and-white language and rhetoric • Skillful at getting publicity  Wheeling speech • Wheeling, West Virginia • Claims recent set-backs in US foreign policy are the work of communist spies and sympathizers within US government • Refers mostly to the loss of China o Mao’s revolution • Fear of declining US power • Class tension o He targets those born wealthy and the state department  McCarthy’s accusations hold a lot of power, and Eisenhower believed that challenging him would do more political damage  McCarthy begins to fall out of favour after his exchange with Welch o General Population  Difficult to gauge impact of McCarthyism  The red scare was viewed by some as a grassroots movement, but in reality it was a top-down phenomenon  Impact: loss of jobs, imprisonment, executions of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg o Race and the Cold War  African American veterans • Many blacks has enjoyed relative freedom in the armed forces, but returned to the US, especially the South being ruled by Jim Crow laws • The US couldn’t claim to be for individual freedom and democracy and still have a large group of the country segregated and subordinated  Brown v. Board • Ends school segregation in the South • Seems to be a win for US makers in the fight for freedom • Sec of State Dean Acheson believed segregation to be an embarrassment for the US on the Global scale  Little Rock Nine • Nine highschool students attempt to enter white school post-Brown v. Board, but are stopped • State officials accuse local activists (NAACP) of staging the event and working with communist sympathizers  Jazz Ambassadors play the Cold War • Louis Armstrong is drafted by the Eisenhower government as a Jazz Ambassador to play behind the Iron Curtain o Women: Homeward Bound?  Encouraged to retreat to home as civic duty  Domestic containment • Seek security through traditional gender roles nd Jan 22 , 2014 The War at Home (cont…) • Nuclear Fear o Baruch plan (US led)  Bernard Baruch  International control of raw materials, bombs themselves, inspections within countries  Creation of international body to administrate  USSR reacts suspiciously, believing it to be US ploy to maintain monopoly and to have USSR facilities open o Gromyko Plan (USSR led)  Destroy existing weapons, and prevent the creation of new ones  US is against it, as they wish to maintain what they have o Negotiation for disarmament is fruitless o Both sides end up creating more weapons  US increase in production  USSR increase in testing  Beginning of arms race  Begin of domestic fear of nuclear war o Stories of Hiroshima and Nagasaki make people think of the possible impact of the bombs on their lives  Uncertainty, as you cannot see the bomb coming  Some begin to turn to religion o At the federal level, discussions of evacuation plans and reactionary measures are considered  Measures to spread dense urban populations  Teaching children to duck for cover • Soviet home front o Historiography  Soviet literature isn’t as prevalent as was that of the US  Censorship laws limit some speech  Soviet archives were closed until after the fall of the Berlin Wall  Studies of Russian society in English are limited  Soviet scholars tend to examine ideology rather than the international context and its implications  In the early years, the Cold War did not seem to have as evident an impact on society as it did in the US  No new set of domestic policy o Competition with the West (under Stalin)  Military and economic • Recovery from the war • Trade • Research and technology • Need for the soviet economy and military to compete with the west  Ideological • Need to present the soviet way of life as preferable o Guns or butter debate  Focus on military production, or consumer goods to appease populace  During WWII, military production was the focus  Following the war, Stalin realizes he needs to reward the people with greater production of consumer goods  Before Stalin can implement his plan to compromise between the two, the economy suffers, and Stalin is forced to choose the guns side  Discontent grows within the population, and the leadership of the party begins to question the efficiency of forced labour for production o Impact of Stalin’s death (1953)  Leadership begins to question his policies o Tension between state and non-state actors  Eg: Stalin accusing researchers of informing US researchers of a cancer cure Jan 27 , 2014 The Cold War Abroad: Crisis and War • Postwar Germany o Divided into four occupation zones, with Berlin in the middle of the Soviet zone o The US decides to allow West Germany to recover, specifically industry, to avoid its fall to communism o The USSR still fears rearmament o US and USSR do not have strict agreements about access to Berlin o US are permitted to provide aid to West sectors of Berlin • American Policy Changes o Willingness to compromise with Soviets only goes so far  Truman and Americans begin to draw lines in the sand o Domestic rise of anti-communism o Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan o Western zones get democratic structure and free elections o Incorporation into Federal Republic of Germany o Creation of Deutschmark • The Blockade and Airlift o Partial blockade, April 1948, full blockade, May 1948  USSR cuts off all road access to Berlin o US uses military to airlift supplies into West Berlin o Marshall sends official note of protest to USSR  Claims blockade to be violation of previous agreements  US claims to act in humanitarian interests o Blockade lasts 11 months o Centrality of Berlin to Cold War politics o Influence of foreign policy and domestic issues on decisions o Reactionary precedent of dealing with crises o Role of rhetoric in maintaining opinion • NATO o Reaction, in part, to crisis in Germany o Definitive break from isolationism  Agreement to intervention in future conflicts o Precedent set by the Treaty of Brussels (1948)  Mutual defense in event of attack on any individual party o Mutual aid in case of armed attack, economic cooperation, peaceful settlement if possible  Lester Pearson and Hume Wrong negotiate for treaty to be more than simply military (Article 2) o An armed attack against one would be considered an armed attack against them all o Hardens the polarization between East and West o First test of NATO will be the Korean War • Chinese Civil War o Nationalists, led by Chang Kai-Shek, supported by the US  Supported monetarily and ideologically o Communist Party, led by Mao Tse-tung, supported by the USSR o Intermittent civil war since 1920s, but reignites in 1948 o Communists take control in 1949  October, Mao makes Declaration of People’s Republic of China o Mao to become the new leader, with Peking to be new capitol  Willing to establish diplomatic relations with whoever is willing to recognize their sovereignty o Nationalists set up shop in Taiwan o Soviet Reaction  Restrained  Stalin concerned that he cannot control the new leader  Concerned that Chinese growth will endanger Soviet claims in the area  Nevertheless, ideological connection  Soviet-Chinese Friendship Treaty • Feb 1950 • Promises 30 year alliance between PRC and USSR • USSR will provide economic credit and industrial equipment to PRC • Mutual cooperation in event of Japanese attack • General cooperation and assistance o American Reaction  “Loss of China”  Politically disastrous for Truman  Communism winning the Cold War?  Anti-Communist domestic movement given boost • Successful Soviet testing of a nuclear bomb, 1949 • NSC-68 (National Security Council, Document 68) o Departure from Kennan’s view of Soviet motivations o Paul Nitze replaces Kennan o Intentions versus capabilities  Soviet intentions are less important than what it is that they are capable of doing  The defeat of Germany and Japan, etc, has led to USSR’s increase in global influence  USSR seeks to impose it antithetical ideology on the rest of the globe o Concern About Soviet Nuclear buildup  Constant global threat in the event of total war  Soviets now have both the will and the capability o 1954, a crisis year  Might have so many as 200 fission bombs stockpiled, and that in the case of an attack, the US could be totally crippled  The US can… (four options) • Continue the status quo • Return to isolationism • War • Military buildup o Therefore the US must increase its own buildup o Policy shift from containment to deterrence o Everyday threat of nuclear war seems very possible • Korean War (first proxy war) o Division of Korea dates back to the end of WWII o By 1948, both sides have established independent governments o Constant border skirmishes and tension between North and South o Kim Il-Sung vs. Sunman Rhee o 25 June 1950, North Korean forces invade the South  US decides it must take a stand o UN gets involved  UNSC calls for withdrawal of all forces o Truman states that communism has passed beyond subversion to expand, and now will use military force o General Douglas MacArthur is put in command of joint force sent to repel invaders  China sends support for the north, and counter US (& co.) momentum o Stalemate by 1951 o Creation of military demarcation line and demilitarized zone
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