o Citizen forces and hired forces
o Early armies are traditional, Roman style
o Static frontier forces (limitanei)
o Mobile Strike forces (Comitatenses)
o Increasing use of Tribal forces in the 45th centuries
o The armies of those like Stilicho Vandals, Alaric visigoths, and theoderic
ostrogoths and the huns, heruli, etc.
o 78th C reinvention of Byzantine military in response to crisis and loss of West
o Citizen army again, based on agricultural land 'professionals'
o Thematic armies rebuild and consolidate new Byzantium
o 9th11th C armies of Anatolian Magnates develop from themes
o Gernals like Lekapenos, Phokas and Tzimiskes move to CP
o Themes now raise money for mercenaries e.g. Normans and Varangians
o More native Byzantine soldiers under Komnenoi
o But dependence on Balkan, Western and Turkish mercenaries in 13th15th cent
o Support mercenaries: cash, levies, billeting (land) to provide revenue to eat