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September 30th.docx

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HIST 240
Tim Smith

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Carolyn Simard HIST 240 September 30 th Contd. From September 23 … rd  Attempt to reconfigure education system in line with the needs of the military and needs of industry  Draft begins, Germany vs. France (Alsace Lorraine)  Growing awareness of structural causes of unemployment  Life and Labour of the People of London, conclusion that 1/3 of the London is poor  Elites have restricted the size of nation with many tactics ex: proving paying taxes, head of household etc  “Equal suffrage is the only permanent and effective weapon against socialist projects” st  The vote was expanded and by the 1 world war property requirements for men were eliminated National, Public, Mandatory Primary Education Systems 1880‟s   Scholars argue as the vote was being expanded so was the Education system, in order to tame the voting population  Literacy was seen as key for democratic society  1870 Education Act in England  1881-86: Ferry Laws in France o Ferry laws named after Education minister o 3 Major laws over a 5 year period o National in scope Provided funding nation ministry, and nation curriculum o Mandatory school attendance, gave money to municipalities to build schools o University was also co-ordinated at a national level  Not a very good time to be a ethnic minority The Rise of Socialism  German SPD: 1881 6.1% of vote  German SPD: 1912 34.7% of vote and largest party in Reichstag. 4.25 million votes  Britain: Labour Party, 53 seats in 1906 election  France: Socialist municipal councils abound  Italy: rise of labour radicalism, strikes, syndicalism in decade before WWI  Unions on the rise  Bismarck tried to outlaw socialism in the 1890‟s The IRON CHANCELLOR and the Birth of the Welfare Sate: Otto von Bismarck, Germany 1880‟s  Bismarck, God Father of the Modern Welfare state  Socialist allowed back on the scene in the 1890‟s   Mandatory, tax-financed. o Medical o Workers Comp (Disability) o Pensions o Mix of state-employer-employee contributions o Boss, government and you pay for a third each o Targeted at those who are likely to be in heavy industry, most likely to vote socialist  National in scope. All industrial and commercial workers (but not professionals, the wealthy, the middle class) must participate  Disability at ½ pay. Old age pensions state expense. No Fault (of worker) accident insurance  Domestic Impact: by 1905, 20 years later, over 11 million people covered by its medical insurance and 26 million covered by accident insurance Only 1.4 million covered by pensions. Total 60million  Only 1.4 million  Begins movement, conservatives using socialism to their favour, way of buying off most radical workers movement  Germany has given very few anti poor advocates, not a hot house of laissez faire liberalism  National Scope is important, reaching everyone by 1905  Worker Comp, big violation of laissez faire, leads to higher costs and more and more groups being left out of the initial movement Rise of the Central State, Europe, 1870‟s-1914  More of a need for the state to provide the façade of access to justice, to remain impartial  State quadrupled from 1870-1914  Germany‟s state spending doubled in the 1880‟s  UK: Local Gov‟t Board, 1870. Labour Dept. 1893. Board of Agriculture, 1894. Board of Education ,1899  France: Ministry of Labour:1904 Legislating Morality  Criminalization of homosexuality, 1885, England, 1871 Germany. o Germany, pink list, list of known homosexuals  Incest criminalized in public law 1907  Failure to send kids to school becomes a crime in the UK in 1886  Age of consent for sex raised from 12 to 16 in 1885 in the UK  France: 1889, parental neglect: state can remove children from the home. A huge expansion of state power  In rich nations there is no longer policing of religion  British Reforms, 1905-1911 (Read Fraser chapter)  School meals (1906); school medical inspection (1907); Old Age Pensions (1908); National insurance act, 1911 ( health insurance for about 1/3 of pop. Unemployment insurance fro industrial workers)  A more diverse mix of social policies is on offer in the UK. The UK is at the avant-garde of social policy at this point  Collection old age pension payment at the post office as a right of citizenship 1909  1914 many areas of life all of a sudden became a key concern of the state Impact of World War I and Developments in Social Policy 1920‟s  WWI o A massive collective effort: 50% of all men aged 15-49 served in the war in the UK in one way or another o France: 79% of men that age were mobilized that is 8 million men o  Demographic Impact WWI o France 1.35 million dead, 760 000 orphans de pere to be assisted until their 18 birthday. 680 000 widows drawing widows pensions o Germany 2.7 million veterans of disability insurance during the 1920s. 1.2 million war orphans o Germany mid 1920‟s 1/3 rd. of national budget goes to war pensions o War exposes middle class to risk hardships and real suffering. o Men paid blood tax, now women owe babies o Population expected a lot from the state post WWI, pension. None this could have happened without taxes o It would take the great depression for the people to look to the state to regulate the economy ex: unemployment Taxes, Deficit, Spending  Income taxes: USA and France, 1916. Canada 1917. UK they already existed but were doubled in 1915  Leads to major shifts in tax policy. The Wealthy get hit hard. By 1915, upper middle class in UK is paying 40-50% income tax rate.  Wars meant sacrifice for the general population, weather it was labour, food rationed or your service  Taxes went up during the war, in some nations they doubled  Spending before war vs After war was 4 or 5 times higher  Most rich nations see
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