History 240 Week 3 Notes
Late 19th Century:
- Charity is abundant and was given about 80 years to prove that it could fulfill the role of
social services in the modern world.
- Nevertheless, begins to wane at this time
- At a very basic level, democratic societies give their people what they want.
- It seems that the middle class needs a social safety net in order to thrive.
- It was the hope of bureaucrats that their place in society would be preserved under a veil
of democracy with social policy appeasing the masses.
- 1848 Revolution in France leads to universal male suffrage.
- Process continues in Europe until even Russia was considering it in 1905.
- 1880s onwards: National, Public, Mandatory Primary Education Systems
- If the people are going to vote they better learn how to vote
- Sought to create an informed voting population and to teach that the social
hierarchy was just.
- 1870 Education act in England
- 1881-86 Ferry Laws in France
- Named after education minister: 3 major laws, which were national in scope.
- Central funding for cities to build new schools.
- National curriculum (something we don’t have in Canada).
- Mandatory school attendance.
- Note: universities were also coordinated at the national level since 1880’s.
- Schools at this time taught nationalism and to accept the social order
- “When France is threatened your duty is to pick up arms and flea to her rescue”.
- Also the time when the US instates the “pledge of allegiance”.
- Education in provincial and local dialects is often banned.
- Note: modern French textbooks are very critical of the industrial revolution and
capitalism; sympathetic to Marxism; very egalitarian and in favor of redistribution.
- German SPD (social democratic party): 1912: 34.7% of vote and largest party in
- 4.25 million votes
- Socialism at this time is not the modern variant of the middle class; it is made up
of the working class who often wanted to overthrow the social order; they wanted
a new world.
- Britain’s Labour Party: 53 seats in 1906 election
- France: socialist municipal councils abound
Bismarck’s Social Reforms:
- Sickness, disability, and pensions.
- Mandatory, tax-financed. Mix of state-employer-employee contributions.
- National in scope.
- All industrial and commercial workers (but not professionals, wealthy, or middle
class) must participate.
- Aimed at those most likely to vote socialist.
- Disability at 1/2 pay. - By 1905 (20 years later) over 11 million covered by medical, 26 million by accident
insurance; only 1.4 million by pensions.
- Total Population: 60 million
- Bismarck was able to accomplish this by a relatively weak right wing compared to rest of
Europe. There was a general acceptance of the poor, and a genuine desire to help them.
- Germany wasn’t ever the home of full on laissez-faire economics.
- Worldwide and timeless accomplishment.
- Transition from charitable welfare to state-funded welfare.
- “The state would no longer fail to heal the social wounds... will be accomplished
not just by repressing the socialist cause, but by taking care of its workers (stick
and carrot)... a policy which will benefit the state, as it will show people that the
state is not just a necessary institution, but a beneficial one” -Bismarck 1879
- Churchill advised the Prime Minister to adopt Bismarck’s policies.
- Bismarck defeated the socialist threat not with oppression, but with generosity.
Rise of the Central State, Europe, 1870s-1914
- The property owning proletariat dwindles; most are wage earners.
- Legislation of Morality:
- Criminalization of homosexuality (England 1885, Germany 1871)
- Incest criminalized in public law (1907)
- Failure to send kids to school becomes a crime in UK in 1876
- Age of consent for sex raised from 12 to 16 in UK in 1885
- France 1889: parental neglect: state can remove children from the home; a huge
expansion of state power.
- Many states realize that they don’t have the ability police such personal matters of
morality, such as convictions of religion.
- Society is becoming very individualistic.
- British Reforms, 1906-1911
- School meals (1906)
- School medical examinations.
- 1909, collection of old age pension became a right of citizenship
- Social policies address vulnerable demographics (women, etc.) due to the nature of
society and militarism and the working classes due to fear of socialist uprising.
The Crucible of War? Impact of World War One on the Growth of the State
Major Developments in Social Policy of the 1920s:
- On the eve of WW1 societies and governments were raging with debates regarding
questions dealing with social policy.
- WW1 and the work force:
- Britain: 50% of all men aged 15-49 served.
- France: 79% of men 15-49 mobilized.
- WW1 destroyed:
- Russian monarchy
- Austro-Hungarian empire
- Ottoman empire - German overseas empire
- A generation of young men
- European international hegemony
- WW1 gave birth to:
- Communism and Russian Revolution (1917)
- Women’s suffrage
- Rise of the USA, Japan and Canada.
- A world wide movement for democracy
- The right of national self-determination, ethnic minorities, small nations,
- Nationalism in the developing world
- An expanded role of the state in the developing world
Demographic Impact of WW1:
- France: 1.35 million dead
- 760 000 “orphans de pere” to be assisted until 18th birthday.
- 680 000 widows drawing from widow’s pensions.
- Britain: 1.8 million dead
- Germany: 2.7 million veterans on disability insurance during 1920’s
- 1.2 million war orphans
- Mid-1920’s: 1/3 of national budget goes to war pensions
- War exposed middle class risk and hardship
- The reason family insurance is so generous in Europe today began with this.
- Low birth rate before the war; much greater tension after war.
- Men paid the blood tax; women must bring the state more babies.
- Greater birth rate seen as a woman’s national duty.
- There was a sense that there should be a social democratic payback for a man’s service in
- “Homes fit for heroes for returning soldi