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HIST 287 #3

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HIST 287

September 17, 2013 HIST 287 – Class #3 Last lecture main points: - Crown offices, national finance - Beginning of a new dynasty - Lost of power to nobility under him, more bureaucratic - Administrative responsibilities under his two minsters - Privy council - Theory of kinship – temple aspects of kingly power The Henrician Reformation - Forever altered the practice religion throughout the British isles The importance od the church in Early modern society - Religion binds the community - Personal uses, dealing with grief o Importance source of consultation o Essential part of obtaining salvation o Wealthy families hired a priest - Legal powers o EXCOMMUNICATION, condemned him/her to hell o Women accused each other of adultery - Sources of entertainment The Pre-Reformation Church in England - Power of the clergy comes from their office, not personal qualities - Key function of priest is to perform mass - Monasteries - Monks contribute to spiritual welfare of community - Spiritual aids, rosaries, candles, relics - The laity were actively involved in these ceremonies - In 1500, general trend was in favor of traditional religion o Individual devotional practices - Priests come from families that has some wealth Complaints against Medieval Church - There were complaints, but they did not equate to dissatisfaction with the catholic church - Lollard movement was the one group that did object to traditional church, but it was a minority o Proto protestant o General trend was toward Catholicism - Reformation in England needed direction form above in order to succeed Martin Luther and the Reformation - In 1517 posts his 95 theses which attacks Catholic doctrine - He is excommunicated - Justification by faith alone - New understanding of the mass o Protestants refused to believe the bread and wine were the blood and body of Christ  Age of miracles was over for the protestants - Priests no longer act as intercessors - Saints no longer important - They reject the idea that good works would lead to salvation o Suggest that man had no free will (Predestination – John Calvin - Protestants believed in mass and baptisim o Ntihing could beat the BIBLE How did the Reformation come to England? - Henry VIII is married to Catherine of Aragon, but does not have a male heir - He is unable to get a papal annulment for his marriage - In order to get divorce, Henry explores the possibility of breaking from Rome - HE turns to his new chief minister, Thomas Cromwell to aid him In rhis process - Pushed him toward Protestantism - Catherine of Aragon, they had a daughter named Mary (Bloody Mary) o They wanted a son  Couldn’t divorce because of political reasons  Henry said they shouldn’t have married because she is the widow of his brother, who died very young  Blamed the pope and questioned his authority o Henry insisted his heir be legitimate and that a legal annulment must suffice  Wolseley died at the Tower of London  Separating England from the jurisdiction of Rome began o Henry determined to marry Anne Boleyn - Anne Boleyn, Lucian Sympathizer - Henry still did not have the means for obtaining the divorce - In 1529, Henry called the Parliament, known as the reformation Parliament - Legislative attack on authority in England - Attacked abuses on the church (non-residences) - Thomas Cromwell, new chief minister - By 1531, Cromwell was a member of Henry’s inner circle - Cromwell is the first king secretary Reformation Legislation - Henry appoints Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, he marries Henry and Anne (secretly) - In 1533, the Act in Restraint of Appeals declares England free from Papal authority, but it is more of a deterrent o Asserted that England is an Empire  Argued that the kings od England had spiritually supremacy
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