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HIST 287 #4

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HIST 287

September 19, 2013 HIST 287 – Class #4 Henrician Reformation - Driven by king and his advisors and pushed down to everyone else - Henry VIII wanted a male heir - Reformation directed from above - Henry’s support for protestant theology is limited - By the end of Henry’s reign, Protestantism has arrived in England Henry VIII’s Successors Edward VI and Mary I A Mid Tudor Crisis in Monarchy? - Sometimes historians refer to the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I as a mid- Tudor crisis in monarchy - Institutions of monarchy never in jeopardy - Many social and financial problems - Ceremony of monarchy remains constant Edward VI - Edward was only nine years old when he was crowned - Authority n a council of 16 men - Edward Seymour, later Duke of Somerset, becomes dominant figure on the council - Somerset sympathetic with Protestant doctrines The Somerset Protectorate - Somerset gets Council to name him Lord Protector o Obtained right to appoint members of the council - New laws in favour of Protestantism o New treason act o 6 articles act o Somerset was sometimes viewed as a man ahead of his time o There was no execution of heresy during his role was protectorate o Believed open discussion on religion was good o It may appear progressive at first glance but it was a little more unconventional - Focused on Scottish War; war is expensive and unsuccessful o Inflation and fed social distress o Final years of Henry VIII’s reign o When he was lord protector he tried to subdue Scotland o But instead he pushed the Scots into a closer alliance with France o 1548, a large French army landed in Scotland  Mary was sent to France and married the dauphin (heir to the French throne) of France  Ruins Somerset’s plans for her to marry Edward instead o 1547 Treason act was followed by another act which dissolved the chantries - Dissolves chantries o Chantries = private religious building for a specific noble or corporation or guild o Henry died before this process could be complete o Theological reasons but also financial reasons o Protestants began raiding churches o Image breaking during Edward’s reign - Destruction of images o Symbols in the church (i.e. decoration, paintings, stain glass)  Protestants have bland churches The Spread of Protestantism - 1549: Act of Uniformity and new prayer book o Allows priests marry  Work of Arch bishop Craemer  Arch bishop of Canterbury o By the end of henrys reign, he didn’t believe in the real presence of Christ in the mass o The wording of the book was ambiguous enough that Catholics could accept it o Somerset’s treatment of the poor  Liberal  - Power of parliament increases - In the mass, structure of the ceremony remains the same - Service in English instead of Latin - Wording is ambiguous, either fully protestant or catholic Somerset’s Social Policy - Focuses on limiting enclosures o The poor farmers need land - His policies and conventional and part of tradition of paternalism - Most social unrest comes from inflation caused by the Scottish War; Somerset does nothing to limit inflation o Riots broke out The fall of Somerset - Somerset ignores the other councilors and they resent him o Left him politically isolated - In 1549, Rebellions in Cornwall over the new prayer book - This rebellion fives other councilors an excuse to get rid of Somerset o The other councilors had no intention to help Somerset o Somerset had a reputation as a revolutionary - Somerset arrested in October 1549 - His rule was disastrous for England o Somerset was allowed to be back on council but he couldn’t accept his subordinate position so he started to plot and got arrested o Somerset had an ambiguous religious policy  HE cost England a great deal Rise of Northumberland - John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland becomes the key figure on the Council - He ends war in Scotland o Under the treaty of Bologne o Marriage between Edward and Mary queen of scots was abandoned o 1551 -growing cloth trade - He passed Acts to protect arable farming and prohibit usury o His social policy had more tangible results o In 1552 new poor law was introduced - New Poor Law introduced - Cramer and Northumberland made an alliance o Northumberland was able to become dominant figure on the council  He took the name Lord President Northumberland’s Religious Settlement - Firmly Protestant - The mass now became a communion service - 42 doctrinal articles that are influenced by Calvinism o Doctrine of pre-destination - These reforms later become cornerstone’s of Elizabethan settlement - No open rebellion or resistance to these changes in religion o However the people did not react the same way to Northumberland as they did to Somerset Central government and planned coup - Power of the council restored - Royal commission to investigate royal courts - Northumberland worried about what happens after Edward dies - He attempts to cut both Mary and Elizabeth out of the succession and give the throne to Lady Jane Grey o Jane Grey married to Northumberland’s son  The
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