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Lecture

6.1 HIST 290, October 15th

7 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 290
Professor
Rankin Sherling

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HIST 290 Ireland to 1848 Monday, October 15 2012h  1601 – Spanish couldn’t land in Ulster where they were needed to help the Gaelic cause o Marched South separately instead of forming one army with the O’Donnells o They didn’t get there at the same time o They were lost from one another o Looked as if they English were surrounded by when O’Neill takes the high ground he can’t see what is going on so he moves away to lower ground o What the English do is then take the high ground because it was free  They charge down the hill thanks to their heavy cavalry o O’Neill goes back to Ulster and hides out there o For two years he wages a guerilla war but known he can’t hold out like that forever  1606 – He submits a few days after the death of Elizabeth o It took the entire Tudor dynasty to subdue Ireland o The techniques that the English wanted to use (surrender and re- grant) just didn’t work and it was ultimately a military conquest o It was made possible only because of the amount of money that was put in, not the other tactics o James was then the King of Scotland, England, Ireland, and Wales – not yet Great Britain  He gives all of the Gaelic Chiefs that stayed around English titles  O’Neill is given the title ‘Earl of Tyrone’ but is less powerful  1607 – McGuire, O’Donnell, and O’Neill decide to leave for Spain because they don’t want to stay in Ireland in a lessened state o Referred to as the Flight of the Earls o Deals a big blow to Gaelic Ireland because they are the political leader of Gaelic Ireland o Big blow to Gaelic social and political powers o Clears out the claims to most of Gaelic Ireland o Now that O’Neill is the Earl of Tyrone and O’Donnell is an earl, they own the rights in an English way, so when they leave they leave the land to no holder and so it goes back to the crown  1609 – English put Scots in the area called the Ulster Plantation o It will change everything o Makes religion the center point of conflict in Ireland Midterm Review  First question is a strongly recommended example question  Terms that follow after are terms that should be used to answer the question  Four other example themes/questions that need to be known too  In the answers we need to know who the terms/people are that are listed 1. Since the 19 century, the most common themes in the way Irish history has been told have been that the Irish were pure Gaels, that the English had dominated them cruelly since the Anglo-Norman invasion, and that after the Reformation began in the early 1500s, the conflict between Ireland and England centered on the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. What is wrong with these assertions?  In the past, Giraldous Cambrensus was only read at face value, but now we know he was doing other things than just writing history o His history was a lot of propaganda and had present day political motives for putting down the Irish and putting up the Anglo- Normans o The Irish were not just beaten down when the Anglo-Normans came  Social domination, the statutes of Kilkenny were thought to no repress the Gaelic culture, but to work for the English residents who were coming to Ireland o They were largely unenforceable as they would not be necessary if the Gaelic culture was not overtaking the English culture  Fior Ghael – pure gaels: term is important for catholic and political reasons later on o Early Irish were very aware that their island had been invaded many times o One of the first books written is Leabhar Gabhala Erenn (Book of Invasions) o Never a pureblood line as people kept invading and marrying in  Gall Gael – foreign Gael: if they were being referred to as foreign, then it is not exactly a Viking force that is fighting o Vikings assimilated  Irish power and fighting before 1166 o There were 5 main provinces and kingdoms with lots of smaller kings and they were always fighting o The inclusion of the New English in this was just an extension of what they were already doing  Reformation and Catholicism and Protestantism o Rebellions were for economic reasons rather than religious ones o All three powers tried to make their rebellions about Protestantism and they failed largely because people didn’t believe in them o ‘Silken’ Thomas FitzGerald (10 Earl of Kildare) rebelled  FitzGerald reinvented himself as a catholic warrior but people didn’t buy into it that much o Framed as a catholic rebellion o Main enforcer for the crown was Hugh O’Neill o Hugh O’Neill went from being catholic to protestant and then back to catholic, so nobody took him seriously 2. Discuss Lhuyd’s Celtic Languages thesis, the widespread adoption of the term “Celtic” for the peoples of ancient Ireland, and what the latter tells us about the way “history” is created.  Term ‘Celtic’ o Idea that everyone picks up on and is thoroughly entrenched in the everyday mind set o We know that they knew about a tribe called the Celts o Construction of later Irish history 3. Derbfine, Tanistry, and the centrality of Gaelic dynastic struggle in the conquests of Ireland.  A lot of the invasions were made possible because they were always fighting for succession and were never stable politically  Always fighting a two front war  No strong central king, lots of smaller kings fighting amongst each other and all struggling for power  No king would be able to rally an Irish army to defend themselves  Allowed the Vikings to raid and conquer  Tanistry = second in command to the high king – not related, but if they king dies the tanist takes over  Dynastic struggle weakened Ireland but in the end worked for Hugh O’Neill for he got to be
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