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5 HIST 290, October 11th

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Queen's University
HIST 290
Rankin Sherling

HIST 290 Ireland to 1848 Thursday, October 11 2012 Midterm  Use examples from the readings for extra marks  Don’t worry about names and dates  Look for basic themes from each lecture o Dynastic struggle (derbfine) o Lack of pure Irish people, they were assimilated over time  Know the stories to answer the questions  Short essays Before the fall of the O’Neill Dynasty  Fall of political and social power of the Gaelic order o When the O’Neills fall these are done  2 vicious cycles that lead up to the fall of the O’Neills o Tudors, who were forced to reorganize the structure of governance in Ireland because of the reformation and the Kildare Revolt  They went hand in hand  Reformation made the removal of the Kildare’s necessary because Henry needed to put somebody in power that he could trust and was loyal to him  Because he put the Kildare’s out of power, they responded in anger and created problems in the Pale o Consequences of Kildare revolt, mostly that the ‘new English’ in Ireland would hold the highest offices  Forced them to pay a cess  Increased English use of cess (tax and plantation)  Kildare revolt lead to English policies which then lead to other English-Irish to revolt  Two different Fitzgerald rebellions (Desmond Rebellions) o One 1569-1572, led by Fitzmaurice (part of Desmond family) and started it because he fears plantations are going to be used in the earldom of Desmond  He takes off to the continent when he thinks that he is going to be captured and reinvents himself as a catholic warrior with a small garrison of Catholic troops  Earl of Desmond joins this o Second was happening at the same time as the first rebellion, led by Viscount Baltin Glass – revolts in the Pale and is crushed  A powerful ally of the English in repressing both of the Revolts in Hugh O’Neill  He’s loyal to the English at this time  Tudor Tactics to try to reassert control over Ireland o Surrender and re-grant o Presidencies – local councils spread throughout Ireland that had policing power made up of English peoples (sometimes they worked and sometimes they didn’t) o Plantation – planting of English born and sometimes (later) Scottish born people in Ireland (the people who were planted over there just became Irish instead) o Shirring – because they were like small kingdoms of clans (earldoms) Characters English:  Elizabeth I  James I (VI Scotland)  Sir Henry Bagenal  Mabel Bagenal  Charles Blount (Lord Mount Joy)  Earl of Essex O’Neill:  Conn Bacach O’Neill (more than one wife at a time) o Married to Lady Alice Fitzgerald (daughter of Gerald Mor Fitzgerald, 8 Earl of Kildare) – most powerful Kildare before the revolt o These two have a child named Shane O’Neill o Had another illegitimate son named Matthew  Matthew has two sons named Brian and Hugh O’Donnells  Calvagh, Blach Hugh, Red Hugh, Rory (brother) O’Sullivan (Beare) Maguire, Fermanaga O’Reilly – Cavan MacMahen, Monaghan  Tudor tactic of surrender and re-grant causes problems for the O’Neills o They want the O’Neills to surrender their land to the English so that they can re-grant their land back to them under their title to gain loyalty  Land holding under English law was very different than what had been happening in Gaelic clans  O’Neills had most of Ulster, but had very loyal vassals in 4 more counties (O’Sullivan, Maguire, etc.) o In those other counties he also rules because they are his vassals o The thousands of people who lived there had to give up land that was covered under the Brethren Laws to give to the O’Neills who would take even more land under an English title  The aristocrats resisted these laws too  The Gaelic title meant something to them because the old Gaelic system was still in lace and the people follow that title, not the title given by the English o The English didn’t really understand what they were asking these chiefs to do  Hugh O’Neill eventually becomes the O’Neill and the English don’t like this o He takes it because he knows that if he doesn’t, someone else in his family will take it instead and follow them instead of him  Conn Bacach turns over his land and earns the title of Earl of Tyrone o Shane is raised as the eldest and has a lot going for him because of his family ties o When Conn recognizes his illegitimate son, Matthew, Shane is pissed o Shane has Matthew murdered o When Conn names Matthew as son, Brian has a tie to the family, so Shane kills Brian as well o Before Shane can kill Hugh, takes him to the Pale to raise him  Shane takes the title of the O’Neill and because of this he controls most of Ulster and the land that his vassals have o Gives him tremendous power in central Ulste
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