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4 HIST 295, October 5th

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Queen's University
HIST 295
Gordon Dueck

HIST 306 Holocaust: Problems and Interpretations Friday, October 5 2012 Illustrated Chronology of Events 1933  January – March: Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) take over Germany  April 1: One day of boycott of Jewish stores throughout Germany o Goebbels is behind this 1935 – September  Nuremberg Race Laws forbid German-Jewish sexual relations o One of the first things done to Jews is making them stateless people and stripping them of their citizenship o At the same time that they are being separated they are also being grouped together 1936  Berlin Olympics (Winter and Summer) o If you were half German and half Jewish then you were allowed to compete o Other countries could enter whomever they pleased o Jessie Owens 1938  March: Annexation of Austria o Called the Anschluss o Conference in France to discuss the refugee problem (Evian Conference) o Nobody wanted to take these refugees in, their excuse was that it was the depression and now was not the time for humanitarian action o Nazis see this and now they see the hypocrisy of western nations and how they are not anti-Semitic but they won’t take in the Jews either o Hitler thinks he has to deal with the problem himself  November: Kristallnacht progrom destroys Jewish property throughout Germany o Turning point o Made to look like a spontaneous uprising against the Jews o Lead again by Joseph Goebbels o Didn’t want to cause too much damage to hurt the economy o Didn’t want insurance claims to be too high o Final solution had not yet been conceived 1939  September 1 : Nazi Germany attacks Poland, beginning WW2  September to December: Polish Jews from areas annexed to Germany were expelled to central Poland  October to November: First ghetto was established in Poland o When the war begins, Germany expels Jews and places then in central Poland and then puts them in ghettos 1940  January: Start of euthanasia program (T4 program) where disabled people were gassed in Germany  April: Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler orders creation of Auschwitz concentration camp  October: Warsaw ghetto was established o Forced labour o Humiliation 1941  June: Nazi Germany invades Soviet Union and unleashes mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) o Operation Barbarossa o There is too much psychological damage to the Germans who are doing all of the killings and they need to use another tactic to kill the Jews o Initially shot men exclusively then moved to women and children o It is at this point that he begins to notice that the German men are starting to suffer to he needs to find a more ‘humane’ way of killing Jews o It was also less expensive to use gas  July: Hermann Goeringorders Reinhard Heydrich formulates a “comprehensive solution to the Jewish Problem”  August: Hitler calls half to the Jewish Program o People are speaking out against it o He actually responds to these outcries  September: First use of Zyklon-B on Soviet POWs at Auschwitz o Rudolph Huss realized that they could use this de-licing gas on human beings o It was a cost cutting measure because what they were using before was too expensive Pogrom in Kovno  Took men who had been imprisoned by the Communist government and let them go with whatever weapons they had at hand and let them slaughter Jewish men, women, and children in public  Even German soldiers were shocked at the horrific killings 1941 (cont’d)  Late September: mass murder of Jews at Babi Yar, near Kiev  October: Jewish immigration ordered to stop o They had their chance to leave although it would cost them a lot, but now that was no longer an option  December: Gassing of Jews begins at Chelmno 1942  January: Wansee Conference outlines measures to exterminate the Jews  March-July: Extermination beings at Auschwitz, Belzex, Sobibor, and Treblinka  June-November: Deportations of Jews and Gypsies from western Europe begins o By now the Germans had conquered the west o Now the French and other countries are cooperating and deporting their Jews to work and death camps  Note: six death camps, all located in Poland – Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Maidanek o These were designed to be death camps after the Wansee conference
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