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5.1 HIST 295 October 9th

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Queen's University
HIST 295
Gordon Dueck

HIST 306 Holocaust: Problems and Interpretations Tuesday, October 9 2012 Essay:  Do the two stories meet or do you get two different accounts of why it happened?  Not disagreeing about what happened but they have different interpretative points that they are making because they are looking at different data  Browning is using Nazi accounts to tell the story  If you look only at certain sources you only get that one perspective of what happened  Wistrich and Browning are using different sources for information  Browning doesn’t agree that the Holocaust happened because they were brainwashed o Being brainwashed is a common answer for why the Holocaust occurred  Wistrich says anti-Semitism is at the heart of the Holocaust but does Browning agree?  This question will lead to more questions if you go deep enough  Which of these, Wistrich or Browning, are more effective as history Important Terms  Einsatzgruppen (Task Forces) o Mobile killing units o First launched during the invasion of Poland and then launched again to a greater extent in the Soviet Union  Ordnungspolizei (Order Police) o Uniformed policemen o Originally supposed to be policemen in Germany but as the war effort became more and more labour intensive, men who were supposed to be watching Germany were having to work for the Einsatzgruppen o They had to start shooting Jews instead of protecting them Operation Barbarossa and the Final Solution  Gassing eventually replaces shooting to: o Protect German soldiers from the psychological strain of killing women and children o Cut costs o Increase efficiency  Gassing technique was borrowed from the euthanasia program and then retooled to kill Jews in the east  Some see gassing as a movement towards modernity Wannsee Conference  January 1942  Some say the final solution begins right here, but it is certainly articulated here  Reinhard Heydrich chairs the conference  1942: most destructive year of the Holocaust – four million murdered  Death camps emerged, 6 in Poland Nazi Police Force Abbreviations  SS = Schutzstaffel = Protection Squadrom  SA = Sturmabteilung = Storm Troopers/Brown shirts  Kripo = kriminalpolizei = criminal police  Orpo = Ordnungspolizei = order police  Gestapo = secret state police  SD = SS intelligence service  Schuma = (see below)  Hipo = Auxiliary police (collaborationist)  Hiwis = Voluntary assistances (collaborationist)  Sipo = security police (composed of Gestapo and Kripo)  RSHA = Reich Security Head Office (amalgamationof Sipo and SD; 1939) o Created by Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS and national Chief of Police  Title: Reichsfuhrer SS o Eichmann: office in RSHAsub department IV-B4 o Made the police a part of the Nazi Party instead of the state  Police working for the Nazis Pius XI (Ambrogio Damaino Achille Ratti)  First pope to live through the Nazi regime  Papal encyclical With Burning Concern promulgated in 1937  Written in German instead of Latin, and it was read from the pulpits of all German catholic churches on palm Sunday  It condemned breaches of the Rechskonkordate and contained criticism of Nazism o Doesn’t specifically say to stop persecuting the Jews o Final solution hasn’t begun yet but people know, especially the Pope, know what the Nazis are all about Pope Pius XII (Pacelli)
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