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Department
History
Course
HIST 299
Professor
Emily Hill
Semester
Winter

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1 HIST 299: China Since 1800 Week 1, Lecture 1: Monday, January 9 Three broad periods in Chinese history: Imperial, Revolutionary, Contemporary Revolutionary - Mao Zedong, Maoist period 1949 to his death in 1976 o Part of a world revolution, an international Communist movement aimed at overthrowing capitalism - Sun Yatsen or Sun Zhongshan (anti-imperialist, dedicated to republican government) o Became a revolutionary figure after what was called an “attempted revolution” in 1895 – the movement was to succeed, and in 1911 the last Chinese emperor was overthrown Contemporary (generally taken to mean “within living memory”) - Time period blends with the revolutionary period, as the revolutions and upheavals continued throughout Mao‟s life, in varying degrees of intensity/severity - Moved into period of Deng Xiaoping (1905-1997) o By 1978 Deng emerged as a top power, and launched widespread reform aimed at a stronger Chinese economy, modernization, higher living standard o Reforms and “opening” since 1978 i.e. some economic liberalization o Deng was trusted by Mao as a loyal subordinate, but took Chinese communism/socialism in a different direction after Mao‟s death o Deng is generally a popular Chinese historical figure Imperial Period - Emperors ruled for over 2000 years in China - The first emperor Qin ruled in the 3 century BC - Important distinction: imperial vs. imperialism (the former a system of government, referral to a period in Chinese history, the latter a Marxist-Leninist term for capitalist expansion and exploitation) th th 17 ant 18 centuries - From Ming to Qing (1600s), the latter being the last Chinese dynasty, fell in 1911 - Qing begun with Manchu Conquest - Qianlong emperor (r. 1736-1796, b. 1711, d. 1799) o Seen as stable ruler, stable society - Next lecture/readings: How was the Ming state founded? Week 1, Lecture 2: Thursday, January 12 *Cancelled* Week 2, Lecture 1: Monday, January 16: From Qing to Ming - The Manchu Conquest – Weakness of the previous emperor/empire gave the Manchus an opportunity to assume power o Justified their assumption of power was weakness of previous dynasty, claimed restoration of the order/stability previously enjoyed under Ming - Fanjin and the examination system 2 o Passing the imperial exams meant dramatic and sudden improvement in social status – the exams (three levels) were tied into all aspects of Chinese life, including career, respect from others, etc. - The Manchus‟ was a military conquest, a turbulent process that lasted decades - After turbulence settled, the Qing dynasty restored peace to the disorder of the last decades of Ming - Established non-Han over most of the population, which was Han (ethnic Chinese) o Han was somewhat of an ethic group, but more so a political affiliation deriving from the previous Han dynasty  Strong Han emperors were glorified  Common culture/affinities  Common education system, admired same scholars  TODAY: more an ethnic group, comprising 90% of Chinese people (homogenization over time) The Weakening of the Ming State th - Economic growth during the 16 century (1500s) – commercial activity, smuggling, and piracy; however the state did not grow with the economy – economic development was too rapid for the bureaucracy to handle - By 1600, the quality of leadership had declined (i.e. the Wanli Emperor, 1573-1620, avoided his duties for years) - Climate change also led to famines and epidemics o Religious ideas that problems were signs from a displeased God o Successful leaders i.e. rebels saw themselves as having God on their side - Manchu/Ching took advantage of these weaknesses, and pushed out rebel leader Li Zicheng (who had briefly overthrown Ming Dynasty) New World Silver - In times of influx, silver caused inflation - In times of shortages, peasants struggled to pay their taxes; dislocation lead to revolts and economic slowdown - Manchu Conquest included depopulation and population transfers, and some massacres where the population of learned Ming loyalists were concentrated Manchu State Formation - Manchu homeland lay in north-eastern China, close to Korea - “Manchu” originally a political term rather than an ethnic label (Jurchen the original ethnic name) - Li Zicheng defeated at the Battle of Shanghai Pass by the combined forces of the Manchus (or Manchurians) and the turncoat (change of allegiance) Ming general Wu Sangui (did not side with Qing until Ming was so greatly weakened defeat looked imminent) - Declaration of new, Qing Dynasty in 1644 o Had learned statecraft before conquering, from Chinese officials, Turks… - Clans called “banners” - Invention of the term “Manchu” seemed more prestigious than “Jurchen”, and included some Mongols and Han as well 3 - Hong Taiji, Emperior of the Qing (although he died 1 year before formal establishment in 1644) and a strong centralizer o Son Dorgon, strong unifier and centralizer as well The Qing Dynasty - Founder Nurhaci, successor founders Taiji and Dorgon - Successive emperors: Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong, all consolidated and expanded the Qing state/territory o Assumed rule over tributary states i.e. Laos, Nepal, who paid their respects in a formal relationship with the Qing emperor - Aspects of Qing rule included: all male subjects shave their foreheads and wear the queue, as well as Manchu clothing - Han-Manchu intermarriage banned - By 1700 stability was returned, aided by resettlement programs, tax relief - Still conflict along the coast, however, with Taiwan (home to Ming loyalists) and some interior conflict with the Zunghars - Carefully regulated trade through PORTS only (not along any other part of coast) Week 2, Lecture 2: Thursday, January 19: Cultural Continuities & the Opium War From reading: Henshen, a Manchu guardsman at the Imperial palace who became a favourite of the Qianlong Emperor – amassed great wealth beyond his rank - Qianlong‟s son arrested, detained Henshen who was ultimately killed and his property repossessed - Indicative of the favouratism of the Imperial state Continuities: Ming to Qing period - Way of life under Qing stayed fairly close to what it had been under Ming - Qing emperors encouraged this to foster compliance and stability - Kangxi Emperor (1666-1722) consolidated and expanded territory, devoted to shifting culture from militarism to scholarship/self-education o “Empire is won on horseback, but ruled with the writing brush” o Considered himself to be a civilian leader o Kangxi reintroduced the exam system in order to reach out to Chinese people with talent, who could be recruited into the Manchu bureaucracy o Kangxi was disappointed that many of China‟s famous most learned people did not seem interested in taking the exams  Introduced a special exam by invitation only, which attracted more scholars because of its increased prestige The privileges of a scholar - Eligible for office/service in the bureaucracy - Status as a well known, respected, learned person - Exemption fro corveé, mandatory manual labour service for no pay - Trial by peers in case of court judgement, and exemption from corporal punishment - Exempt from sumptuary laws i.e. could adorn themselves in as luxurious fabric, transport as they pleased, compared to regular population that was encouraged/legally bound to be thrifty and appear humble 4 - Scholars were the only non-official civilians allowed to meet with official members of the bureaucracy face to face – others had to write letters, petition, etc. - China‟s “gentry” or shenshi class - Scholars and their relatives (for 2-3 generations) formed the shenshi - Status extended beyond scholar himself to whole family - Between 1 and 2.5% of the population - This was a very small portion of the population, however the idea was still prevalent in China that status was not permanent, and could be raised through successful examination - China’s Bureaucracy in 1800 o Was composed in 1800 of about 40,000 officials in 18 ranks o Administered 18 provinces, comprised of several thousand counties The Three Teachings: Confucian, Daoist, Buddhist - China‟s educational system under Qing (particularly Kangxi Emperor, “it is by being filial that I rule”) based primarily in Confucianism - Emphasized filial respect for parents, and also responsibility for one‟s juniors - Life long learning, and deserved of respect  reciprocity - Confucianism hierarchical, but responsibility was also greater with greater position – work load did not decrease with higher position in hierarchy Opium - Developed largely because tobacco was smoked through a pipe; the two were mixed, became a poplar recreation (opium had previously been used medicinally) - Opium War (1839-1842) o Opium was spreading despite bans on import, beginning in 1720 (smuggling) o Largely exchanged for silver, not goods, leading to decrease in China‟s silver o 1834: Parliament ended the British East India Company‟s monopoly on opium production/trade, allowing other merchants and private traders to bring even more opium into China - “Parallel Addictions” o British tea imports from China rose from 40,000 pounds in 1700 to over 20 million pounds in 1800 (silk, porcelain, and sliver were exchanged in addition to tea) – British government gained great tax revenue on tea imports o Likewise, opium shipments to China increased drastically Week 3, Thursday, January 26: The Late Qing Period: internal and External Challenges - New Year of the Water Dragon Document Analysis (following content, context, significance): Cheng and Leszt 9.3, Prince Gong on the Tongwen College, Three Memorials - Product of the second Opium War, indication of the state‟s capacity to handle challenges and adapt to circumstances by changing institutional composition - Memorial: formalized memoranda to the Emperor - A new office: Zongli Yamen: office for dealing with the various foreign states (foreign office established in 1861, for the first time in China – previously had done so through other organs of government) 5 - 2 ndOpium War, victory of Britain and France – who opposed term on China, which included the establishment of a foreign office - Prince Gong also established the Tongwen College (1862-1902) – bringing common languages together in one school - Merged into Peking University (considered China‟s top university today) A new framework for foreign relations - Formerly, other government bodies had dealt with foreign relations: war, rites, revenue, lifanyuan (“court of border management”) - Not that foreign affairs were disregarded in Qing China, rather not concentrated - 1861: “The Viceroy of Canton reported that there was no man whom he could recommend…” for leadership of the College o Viceroy compared/translated to something like a Governor General, who managed whole regions/two provinces o Viceroy of Canton administered Guang East and West - 1865: College was established, with some problems – “ proposals laid before the throne… were made a target for bitter attack by mandarins of the old school” - Need to learn other languages, as well as keep up proficiency in Chinese - Those who were already proficient in Chinese would study science and technology – the keys behind Western strength o Contentious: emphasis on cultural purity and Western hegemony were prominent issues – some distaste around Western technology - 1866: Gong defends his position against critics in 1866 memorial – critics thought it was disgraceful that China study Western technology o Gong: what would really be disgraceful is if Japan, an inferior culture in Chinese eyes, took up Western technology and China did not i.e. Japan‟s first modern warship was a steamship built in the Netherlands (1855) o Japan was sending diplomatic Chinese missions to Western nations, to learn about their technological prowess, concerned with state security (particularly after witnessing China having to capitulate to British after Opium Wars) o Gong: it is disgraceful if we do not study the technology that Japan is studying, regardless of where it comes from (the West) o Note: challenge of threat by American Commodore Perry, who threatened Japanese autonomy Document Analysis: Cheng and Lestz 10.4, Zhang Zhidong on the Central Government, 1898 - Perhaps one of Prince Gong‟s opponents; he is interested in education, but traditional Chinese education with little departure from the Confucian way (different time period, same themes) o Should Chinese education be changed, how will Chinese government adapt to international changes/threats/incursions Questions for Discussion: - What were the strengths of the Qing state? - How did its capacity compare to the challenges? – Was it able? - In what sense did it weaken? 6 - What forces became stronger? - Did the Qing state become stronger in any way? - Did it provide a basis for China‟s strength today? The Opium Business - Around 1800, opium had become the world‟s most valuable commodity trade o In 1880, China‟s opium imports were 39% of total imports by value o From the 1880s, China grew more than half its supply (opium ban lifted) and were no longer as dependent on imports o Growing domestic production left less arable land for food crops, esp. as tobacco became more common as well – however, became integral to Chinese econom o Still growing in China in the 1950s, until the Communist government brought production and consumption under control with prohibition Internal Conflicts in last 100 years of Qing Dynasty - White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804) – dragged on for almost a decade, expensive o Millenarian Buddhism – end of the world, must get ready for the change o Justifiable to rebel against current authorities to create new order - Taiping Rebellion (1851-64) – could be called civil war, o Catalyzed by population dislocations, resulted in vast loss of life (millions of people), including by epidemic o Rebels established their own government, for 14 years against Qing Dynasty o Alternative capital (Nanjing) occupied by the rebellion, making it their capital o When Qing forces finally succeeded in taking back Nanjing, a massacre in the city by Qing soliders in 1864 - Nian Rebellion (1860-70s) - Moslem Rebellion (1860-70s) - Sign in traditional thinking that the Qing emperor(s) must no longer have the favour of heaven – however none of the rebellions gained enough force to overthrow the empire o Simultaneously a sign of weakness and with strength? o Somthing clearly wrong with the system vs. huge challenges that the Qing state was able to overcome - Hong Xiuquan – raised large army, belonged to minority group (Hakka) of Han Chinese, distinct from majority Han by their migration later than other groups (“guest people”) o Preached equality for men and women, more so than in mainstream China o Standard element of rebellion was doctrine, appeals to metaphysical themes i.e. the afterlife, good and evil External Conflicts - Opium War (1839-42) - China-France War (1884-85) – French fleet destroyed Chinese navy - China-Japan War (1894-5) – Navy again decimated by faster, more efficient Japanese fleet - Treaties imposed after each conflict, sanctions, conditions, etc. 7 Internal and External: the Boxer Uprising (1899-1900) - Occupation of Beijing by foreign forces for more than a year Responses by Chinese Government - Self-strengthening movement (1860-1895) - Included training new armies and modern technology in military affairs - Industrialization picking up i.e. armaments factories - Hundred Days Reform (1898) – ordered by young Quangxu Emperor and subsequently reversed by his advisors - Post-Boxer Uprising reform (1901-1910) - Responses generally seen as inadequate to dealing with China‟s problems – there were changes, but enough done in not enough time - Empress Dowager Cixi blamed for failed response to Boxer Uprising o Institutional changes not put into place until 1901 – when it was too late Demographic Expansion - Seen as success under Qing state - China‟s population was about 250 million by 1600, 300 million in 1700, 400 million in 1850, and 582.6 million people in 1954 when the first modern census was conducted - Increased food supply required in this late imperial period population growth: satisfied by opening up new land, and settlement of outlying and new regions - 40% of new food supply came from more intensive/extensive production and new crops i.e. sweet potatoes could be grown on hillsides, where rice could not be grown - No indication of growth in poverty in conjunction with population growth - More commercialization as population grew, which grew faster than population itself o More places to exchange goods arose - Education spread widely into a higher proportion of the population; population was more literate, and more engaged in commerce - Qing Emperors imagined themselves as teachers to the whole population, established academies, encouraged study of all kinds (50% of all men were basically literate) - Modernization in Chinese form based mainly on increasing production/commerce, supported by literacy and spread of education o Production and demand for books increased – for study guides, for novels Effects of population growth - Qing rulers able to consolidate their conquest, as more far-reaching areas were settled - Migrants filled up areas previously ravaged by war, as well as interprovincial frontier zones previously not settled, as well as the West - Populated by people who considered themselves Qing subjects – therefore consolidation - Later (19 c.), however, some of these newly populated areas became resistive 8 o Government i.e. infrastructure/bureaucracy had not really followed the migrants - Shift in the state-society balance o Rather than saying Qing state was becoming weak, it was remaining small while society was expanding (according to traditional – Daoist non-action – ideal that the state would be small – let nature follow its own course) o Although formally/officially committed to Confucianism, Chinese rulers had incorporated elements of Daoism – virtuous to remain small government, not intervene with the people too much… o 40 000 officials in 1800; ratio worked out to one official per 250 000 people at the county level o Taxation rates were also very low – also according to principle o Kangxi Emperor fixed agricultural taxes in perpetuity in 1711  Landlords prospered, producers at the basic level prospered, and the shenshi class associated with landholding o Tax revenue: about 5% of the value of the total national product - What do such low taxes mean for government capacity? - Composition of government did not change much either, except in some de facto ways o Diffusion of authority to people with no official capacity in government i.e. shenshi - The Grand Canal was in disrepair, as was the Yellow River conservancy system – affected grain shipments - Aging infrastructure: the Qing state had such limited financial capacity, it had limited means to fix these problems - Costly rebellions and the authority of regional commanders i.e. He Shen, who spent money but did not engage in the military conflicts/victories he was charged to do - Emperor Qianlong‟s laxity? Enjoyed ostentation, perhaps wasted money - Fiscal authority was delegated to regional commanders (see slides) who were honest - Raised revenue in their localities by imposing a provisional tax on goods in transit, linjin tax o A problem for later governments – lack of fiscal unity, fracturing of authority of the imperial budget Indemnity Payments - Japan managed to maintain its autonomy, keeping engagement with West at minimum - However for China, 21 million dollars to Britain in 1842 (aftermath of Opium War) - Indemnity payments got bigger and bigger after each war, i.e. 230 million taels to Japan in 1895 – 10 times the fine imposed previously by Britain - The 8 “Powers” (1901) demanded 450 million taels in aftermath of Boxer Uprising (although Boxers were rebelling against Qing with foreign powers help) o This last payment was 5 times the revenue of the Qing state – never fully paid off, required to take out loans from the same powers that demanded the payments HIST 299: China Since 1800 9 Week 3, Monday, January 23: Seminar 1, discussion of prescribed questions Week 3, Thursday, January 26: The Late Qing Period: internal and External Challenges - New Year of the Water Dragon Document Analysis (following content, context, significance): Cheng and Leszt 9.3, Prince Gong on the Tongwen College, Three Memorials - Product of the second Opium War, indication of the state‟s capacity to handle challenges and adapt to circumstances by changing institutional composition - Memorial: formalized memoranda to the Emperor - A new office: Zongli Yamen: office for dealing with the various foreign states (foreign office established in 1861, for the first time in China – previously had done so through other organs of government) - 2 ndOpium War, victory of Britain and France – who opposed term on China, which included the establishment of a foreign office - Prince Gong also established the Tongwen College (1862-1902) – bringing common languages together in one school - Merged into Peking University (considered China‟s top university today) A new framework for foreign relations - Formerly, other government bodies had dealt with foreign relations: war, rites, revenue, lifanyuan (“court of border management”) - Not that foreign affairs were disregarded in Qing China, rather not concentrated - 1861: “The Viceroy of Canton reported that there was no man whom he could recommend…” for leadership of the College o Viceroy compared/translated to something like a Governor General, who managed whole regions/two provinces o Viceroy of Canton administered Guang East and West - 1865: College was established, with some problems – “ proposals laid before the throne… were made a target for bitter attack by mandarins of the old school” - Need to learn other languages, as well as keep up proficiency in Chinese - Those who were already proficient in Chinese would study science and technology – the keys behind Western strength o Contentious: emphasis on cultural purity and Western hegemony were prominent issues – some distaste around Western technology - 1866: Gong defends his position against critics in 1866 memorial – critics thought it was disgraceful that China study Western technology o Gong: what would really be disgraceful is if Japan, an inferior culture in Chinese eyes, took up Western technology and China did not i.e. Japan‟s first modern warship was a steamship built in the Netherlands (1855) o Japan was sending diplomatic Chinese missions to Western nations, to learn about their technological prowess, concerned with state security (particularly after witnessing China having to capitulate to British after Opium Wars) o Gong: it is disgraceful if we do not study the technology that Japan is studying, regardless of where it comes from (the West) o Note: challenge of threat by American Commodore Perry, who threatened Japanese autonomy 10 Document Analysis: Cheng and Lestz 10.4, Zhang Zhidong on the Central Government, 1898 - Perhaps one of Prince Gong‟s opponents; he is interested in education, but traditional Chinese education with little departure from the Confucian way (different time period, same themes) o Should Chinese education be changed, how will Chinese government adapt to international changes/threats/incursions Questions for Discussion: - What were the strengths of the Qing state? - How did its capacity compare to the challenges? – Was it able? - In what sense did it weaken? - What forces became stronger? - Did the Qing state become stronger in any way? - Did it provide a basis for China‟s strength today? The Opium Business - Around 1800, opium had become the world‟s most valuable commodity trade o In 1880, China‟s opium imports were 39% of total imports by value o From the 1880s, China grew more than half its supply (opium ban lifted) and were no longer as dependent on imports o Growing domestic production left less arable land for food crops, esp. as tobacco became more common as well – however, became integral to Chinese econom o Still growing in China in the 1950s, until the Communist government brought production and consumption under control with prohibition Internal Conflicts in last 100 years of Qing Dynasty - White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804) – dragged on for almost a decade, expensive o Millenarian Buddhism – end of the world, must get ready for the change o Justifiable to rebel against current authorities to create new order - Taiping Rebellion (1851-64) – could be called civil war, o Catalyzed by population dislocations, resulted in vast loss of life (millions of people), including by epidemic o Rebels established their own government, for 14 years against Qing Dynasty o Alternative capital (Nanjing) occupied by the rebellion, making it their capital o When Qing forces finally succeeded in taking back Nanjing, a massacre in the city by Qing soliders in 1864 - Nian Rebellion (1860-70s) - Moslem Rebellion (1860-70s) - Sign in traditional thinking that the Qing emperor(s) must no longer have the favour of heaven – however none of the rebellions gained enough force to overthrow the empire o Simultaneously a sign of weakness and with strength? o Somthing clearly wrong with the system vs. huge challenges that the Qing state was able to overcome 11 - Hong Xiuquan – raised large army, belonged to minority group (Hakka) of Han Chinese, distinct from majority Han by their migration later than other groups (“guest people”) o Preached equality for men and women, more so than in mainstream China o Standard element of rebellion was doctrine, appeals to metaphysical themes i.e. the afterlife, good and evil External Conflicts - Opium War (1839-42) - China-France War (1884-85) – French fleet destroyed Chinese navy - China-Japan War (1894-5) – Navy again decimated by faster, more efficient Japanese fleet - Treaties imposed after each conflict, sanctions, conditions, etc. Internal and External: the Boxer Uprising (1899-1900) - Occupation of Beijing by foreign forces for more than a year Responses by Chinese Government - Self-strengthening movement (1860-1895) - Included training new armies and modern technology in military affairs - Industrialization picking up i.e. armaments factories - Hundred Days Reform (1898) – ordered by young Quangxu Emperor and subsequently reversed by his advisors - Post-Boxer Uprising reform (1901-1910) - Responses generally seen as inadequate to dealing with China‟s problems – there were changes, but enough done in not enough time - Empress Dowager Cixi blamed for failed response to Boxer Uprising o Institutional changes not put into place until 1901 – when it was too late Demographic Expansion - Seen as success under Qing state - China‟s population was about 250 million by 1600, 300 million in 1700, 400 million in 1850, and 582.6 million people in 1954 when the first modern census was conducted - Increased food supply required in this late imperial period population growth: satisfied by opening up new land, and settlement of outlying and new regions - 40% of new food supply came from more intensive/extensive production and new crops i.e. sweet potatoes could be grown on hillsides, where rice could not be grown - No indication of growth in poverty in conjunction with population growth - More commercialization as population grew, which grew faster than population itself o More places to exchange goods arose - Education spread widely into a higher proportion of the population; population was more literate, and more engaged in commerce 12 - Qing Emperors imagined themselves as teachers to the whole population, established academies, encouraged study of all kinds (50% of all men were basically literate) - Modernization in Chinese form based mainly on increasing production/commerce, supported by literacy and spread of education o Production and demand for books increased – for study guides, for novels Effects of population growth - Qing rulers able to consolidate their conquest, as more far-reaching areas were settled - Migrants filled up areas previously ravaged by war, as well as interprovincial frontier zones previously not settled, as well as the West - Populated by people who considered themselves Qing subjects – therefore consolidation - Later (19 c.), however, some of these newly populated areas became resistive o Government i.e. infrastructure/bureaucracy had not really followed the migrants - Shift in the state-society balance o Rather than saying Qing state was becoming weak, it was remaining small while society was expanding (according to traditional – Daoist non-action – ideal that the state would be small – let nature follow its own course) o Although formally/officially committed to Confucianism, Chinese rulers had incorporated elements of Daoism – virtuous to remain small government, not intervene with the people too much… o 40 000 officials in 1800; ratio worked out to one official per 250 000 people at the county level o Taxation rates were also very low – also according to principle o Kangxi Emperor fixed agricultural taxes in perpetuity in 1711  Landlords prospered, producers at the basic level prospered, and the shenshi class associated with landholding o Tax revenue: about 5% of the value of the total national product - What do such low taxes mean for government capacity? - Composition of government did not change much either, except in some de facto ways o Diffusion of authority to people with no official capacity in government i.e. shenshi - The Grand Canal was in disrepair, as was the Yellow River conservancy system – affected grain shipments - Aging infrastructure: the Qing state had such limited financial capacity, it had limited means to fix these problems - Costly rebellions and the authority of regional commanders i.e. He Shen, who spent money but did not engage in the military conflicts/victories he was charged to do - Emperor Qianlong‟s laxity? Enjoyed ostentation, perhaps wasted money - Fiscal authority was delegated to regional commanders (see slides) who were honest - Raised revenue in their localities by imposing a provisional tax on goods in transit, linjin tax 13 o A problem for later governments – lack of fiscal unity, fracturing of authority of the imperial budget Indemnity Payments - Japan managed to maintain its autonomy, keeping engagement with West at minimum - However for China, 21 million dollars to Britain in 1842 (aftermath of Opium War) - Indemnity payments got bigger and bigger after each war, i.e. 230 million taels to Japan in 1895 – 10 times the fine imposed previously by Britain - The 8 “Powers” (1901) demanded 450 million taels in aftermath of Boxer Uprising (although Boxers were rebelling against Qing with foreign powers help) o This last payment was 5 times the revenue of the Qing state – never fully paid off, required to take out loans from the same powers that demanded the payments HIST 299: China Since 1800 Week 4, Monday, January 30: Past and Present: 1911 Revolution (guest lecturer Jie Deng) - Zhang Zhidong 1898 essay (course reading) o Whether or not China should adopt Republican style government; arguing against this, for the centralized, more hierarchal system already in place o Questions surrounding ability of general populace to make important decisions i.e. rule by the masses; is his argument convincing? (or does it contradict Chinese emphasis on popular education?) o Does Zhidong have the correct conception of what Republicanism is? Has he considered the positive aspects of this style of government? - Wu Bangguo 2009, CCP o Western-style democracy would have dire consequences, any loosening of the Party‟s hold on power could undermine stability and risk domestic strife i.e. no multi-party elections, no separation of powers, no privatization, etc. o Is Wu‟s argument similar to Zhang‟s, over a century later? Celebrating the centennial - Celebrating anniversaries is in human nature - How is the 1911 revolution portrayed and celebrated by various groups? The CCP‟s commemoration - Mayor of Wuhan, Ruan Chengfa announced that the city would spend $3 billion (compared to Beijing Olympics at $2.3 billion) on centennial (Wuhan location of rebellion) – but also a national celebration - Celebration held in the People‟s Hall (symbol of CCP power, status) on Nov. 9, 2011 – reveals the highest status of the commemoration - Why so much money and celebration? Why so important? o Event determined future of China Hu Jintao: “the 1911 revolution overthrew the rule of Qing and terminated autocratic monarchy which had ruled China for several thousand years… the CCP is the supporter, co-operator, and successor of Sun Yat-sen’s cause and has realised his ambitions… We 14 need cline to the themes of peace and development and be against independence of Taiwan” The GMD’s Commemoration – how does the GMD present 1911? (Guomindang) - KMT in Taiwan – See slides when available - Ma Yingjiu’s speech: Aim of Sun was to establish a free, democratic and equally- wealthy country – Mainland should work toward these goals - ROC is still living, created the miracle of Taiwan - Aim of Sun – See slides Dissident’s Commemoration - Editors/Journalists removed from positions based on articles written about the revolution - “Before 1911 Revolution, the ruling interest groups had lost face” - “The 100 years after 1911 Revolution was 100 years‟ pursuit of Constitutional Democracy” – history presented for purpose, not latently - Xin, Professor U of T: 1911 Revolution replaced despotism with democracy – See slides Questions – See slides What happened in 1911? - Oct 10: Wuchang uprising/mutiny and Hubei declared independence - Oct 22: Hunan and Shaanxi independent - Oct 23: Jiangxi independent - Mid-November, 15 out of 18 provinces (China proper) declared independence - Dec. 25: Sun arrived in Shanghai - Jan 1, 1912, Sun sworn in The Revolutionaries: Mutineer Ching forces fighting against loyal Ching forces The Revolutionary Narrative - The founding of the Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 (that Sun established) - A succession of failed military actions (that Sun launched) - Wuchang rebellion (Sun led allegedly) - The birth of ROC (Sun was elected President) The Problems of Revolutionary Narrative - Why did similar uprisings shortly before 1911 fail one by one, while this Wuchang uprising suddenly succeed? - Were the revolutionaries more powerful than the Taiping Rebellion? The Qing government would quell the Taiping Kingdom but could not … – See slides - 1911 Revolution was not a planned event, but improvised - Sun and his associates had no control over the situation (Sun in USA?) - The Wuchang mutiny was launched by the Literature Society and the Cultivating Together Society - Sun and his followers were easily removed by power-holders– See slides 15 Move to the Dissolution Narrative (more accurate than Revolutionary narrative?) - Taiping Rebellion (private forces and powerful Han magistrates) 1850s-60s - Southeast Mutual-Promise during Boxer Rebellion (1900) - Local elites challenged central authority (1900s) - Provinces independent in 1911 Conclusion - Qing collapsed in 1911, but was not overthrown by the revolutionaries (collapsed of its own accord – accumulated weakness coming to fruition) - 1911 Revolution was not that important, if there was revolution at all - Sun Yat-sen was not that important/great in the end CCP Interpretation: teleological - 5 stages human evolution: primitive, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, communism - 1911 Revolution was a capitalist, anti-imperialists and anti-feudalist revolution, for which the CCP was the true descendant (?) GMDs Interpretation – See slides Dissidents’ Interpretation - 1911 Revolution was great because it created a new era: democracy, nationalism, progress - Oppression – See slides Week 4, Thursday, February 2: The Twilight of Qing Rule Two ambitious programs - 1. Beginning of the “Qing Reforms” 1901 o Abolition of the exams, founding of Chambers of Commerce o New status of the educated businessman - The Constitutional Movement 1905-1911 o Type of parliament/legislative assembly with a degree of authority for people‟s input; power sharing between monarchy and the people o Therefore provincial assemblies formed led by people of social status in communities, while most ordinary people did not take part o Qing rule fell apart along provincial lines, because the provinces had established this form of self government - 2. Revolutionary Movement o Foundation of the Tongmenghui (Revolutionary Alliance) in Japan (1905) o Gathered force outside China (in order to evade authorities) - Which movement was more decisive? Revolution was declared. o How did the two movements/trends interact? Immediate causes of the 1911 Revolution - Constitutional movement (too fast and too slow) 16 - The Chengdu Railway Protection demonstration (August 1911, part of the Rights Recovery movement in several provinces) o Need for centralized, integrated railway system o News of confrontation about railway funds spread rapidly, due to development of telecommunications system between China‟s major cities Document Analysis Zheng Guofan, Cheng and Lestz, No. 8.6 - Proclamation against the Bandits of Guandong and Guangxi, 1854 - Claim that the rebels were cutting off women‟s feet – is this true? o More likely that the Taiping (?) bandits were ordering women to remove their food bindings to mobilize them for violent conflict Li Hongzhang (1823-1901) Cheng and Lestz 10.2 - Li Hongzhang Negotiates with Japan 1895 - Taiwan became Japanese from 1895-1945 as a colony of Japan Midterm February 9 - Part A: True or False, 10-15 (10%) 5-10 minutes o i.e. Qianlong Emperor‟s successor arrested Heshen, confiscated his property, and sent him into exile? F – Heshen was killed (study: reading review) - Part B: Document Analysis (60%) o Choose 2 questions from a set (of assigned documents)  Check past exams o 15 minutes each, passage, name, and date included from document o Follow content, context, significance framework o Worth 60% therefore about the same length as a short essay o Questions will be defined, therefore – perhaps less time than the essay o More important than structure/form is thought about the document - Part C: Essay (30%) 30% of time of 80 minutes o Qing period, the revolution o Organization/structure How did the Emperors deal with challenges? - In what sense did the Qing state weaken? - Self-strengthening (1860s through the 1890s) o To build up military power required large financial commitment o China lacked money because of past indemnity payments - An alternative to the decline thesis o Authority became diffuse, even disintegrated? o Power still existed, even stronger in many ways before, but not concentrated in the center – the center became weak relative to regions and other groups  Other forms of authority: military, administrative, budgetary, intellectual and moral Aspects of the loss of authority 17 - Military – los to regional commanders and foreign powers, to Han Chinese, and to new armies (?) which were not commanded by a Manchu military man, rather required new style of military education - Loss of sovereignty – loss of control to outsiders – because of military defeats - with no authority delegated by the Emperor) - Loss of moral authority (legitimacy) especially in religious affairs – which affected more and more ordinary people o Emperors in late 19 century forced to allow Christian‟s rights and evangelization – Emperor no longer only religious authority - Destroyed Summer Palace (burned 1860) now seen as honour of China‟s resistance to foreign aggression - Yuan Shikai and other commanders of the Beiyang Army: altered military authority - Administrative Authority o Small government relative to population o Loss of territorial control o The Treaty System – extraterritoriality (foreign laws apply to foreign citizens living in China) Qing abided, until Treaty System went further by claiming things like tax exemption, protection by the Qing state during travelling, evangelization…  In the end, Qing did not benefit from extraterritorial as they had thought - A shrinking state sector o Despite the increased population, increases in the number of official positions did not keep pace, rising by about 20% during the whole Qing period, while the pop. almost doubled - Loss of fiscal authority o Establishment of an important new institution, the imperial Maritime Customs agency, staffed at the top by foreigners o The Customs placed control of revenue in the hands of foreigners (formally officials of the Qing government) o The agency operated in the Treaty Ports, with its authority extending whenever new ports were opened (92 more) o Treaty Ports officially opened to trade, and foreigners had extraterritorial privileges in these areas – fewer restrictions - Sir Robert Hart, December 27, 1894 Inspector-General of the IMC – China‟s most important revenue collection system – stayed in China for 60 years - Social Change o Birth of modern industry 1860s o Shifts towards coastal areas SLIDES o Social Darwinism External Causes of the Chinese Revolution - Umeya Shoukichi b. 1868 - Met Sun Yatsen in 1895, became sworn brothers, pledged to support Revolution - Provided the Tongmenghui‟s (founded 1905) Tokyo headquarters - Hosted Sun‟s wedding to Song Qingling (1914) in Tokyo 18 - 1905: 2 groups of Chinese students in Japan: a group from Guangdong led by Sun Yatsen, and Hunanese students led by Huang Xing o Sun Yatsen met Xing, then that Tongmenghui was formed - Go east for new intellectual authorities – look to Japan for self-strengthening o These educated men claimed authority based on their familiarity with new ideas, and claimed that state-led academic institutions should be formed  Kang Youwei (1858-1927) claimed that “Confucius was a reformer”  Liang Qichao (1873-1929)  Sun Yatsen argued that the “people” should rule  Vs. Zhang Zhidong who said the courts, not the people know best - The structure of the state – authority formally unitary, but became more diffuse o No separation of powers, Emperors only shared power with trusted family members and some loyal servants, some bureaucrats Moral Authority - Many groups began to question moral authority of Qing rulers (Nian, Taiping movements) - Chinese intellectuals began to see “traditions” as immoral i.e. opium, concubinage, footbinding – immoral as well as weakening the state/Chinese people – influence of the appearance of strength of the Christian religion – at the end of the Qing period HIST 299: China Since 1800 Week 5, Monday, February 6: 1911 Revolution - How did the rule of Emperors end? o Was there wide-spread, bloody civil war? No - 2 central themes: opposition to Manchu rule, Anti-imperialism – opposition to foreign encroachment (distinguish between the two themes/reasons) o Interaction between the two themes: opposition to Manchu, because Empire was not dealing with foreign encroachment very well - Empress Dowager Cixi o Woman, not able to pursue advanced education – narrow minded/not worldly o Advisers – she tended to rely only on Manchu supporters of her rule - Pu Yi, China‟s five year old last emperor, whom revolutionaries seek to depose Arsenic and the second-last emperor - Guangxu emperor – 100 years after his death, his remains were tested, and confirmed a sudden poisoning by fatal dose of arsenic; rumours that Dowager Cixi arranged it o He was too old to control, Dowager passed control to Pu Yi 5 year old o Dowager and Guangxu (who was in his late 30s) died within 24 hours of each other, Dowager first - Last emperor, Pu Yi, was allowed under terms of abdication was allowed to continue living in the Forbidden City/Imperial Palace, until he went into exile in 1924, to 1933 o Lived on until the mid 60s - A restoration attempt, 1917 19 Document Analysis: How would Zeng Guofan respond to Zou Rong‟s accusations? - Zeng Guofan Zuo Zongtang Li Hongzhang were all posthumously honoured…” by Manchu rulers, but they don‟t deserve these honours (p. 200) - The three men helped the Manchus maintain power over the Han Chinese o Helped the Qing state to put down the Taiping Rebellion (which established a succession state for 15 years) o Zeng Guofan is the man (from last lecture) who accused the rebels of cutting of women‟s feet - According to Zou Rong, they should not be honoured, but were traitors – all three were Han - Zou Rong advocates that generations earlier, there was an original wrong – the Manchu conquest of China; recalls the massacres on the coast - Zou Rong perhaps sees himself as defender of whole Chinese culture, which Taiping are undermining in there ceded state - *Documents analyzed in class are more likely to appear on the midterm Boxer Uprising (Boxers United in Righteousness, 1900) - Boxers first blamed the Qing and then Christian missionaries and their Chinese converts for their problems - The movement flourished in northern China, and area hit hard by natural disasters - Women also participated - Boxers believed that they possessed super-human powers (if they trained in martial arts, with pure intentions, discipline and devotion to their cause) o Concern of new, unfamiliar technology i.e. telecommunications, churches being built o The natural order/balance of things was being set off o Mainly the uneducated class, but some educated people too, who did not approve of changes being made by foreign encroachment - Attached everything associated with the West – Chinese Christians the main victims, marched into Beijing in summer of 1900, and besieged the foreign embassies Reaction against foreign encroachments – contributions to Boxer movement - After the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, the Japanese and other Western powers pushed for “spheres of influence” in China i.e. railway building leases - The USA proposed an “open door” policy that would keep all of China open to all traders - In 1900, the Boxers attacked Christians, railroad track, telegraph lines, foreign embassies - A multinational foreign army crushed the rebellion, killing thousands of innocent Chinese o Intention to quell uprising and aid the Qing state o However, Dowager Cixi had decided to side with the Boxers – not all high officials agreed with her; she was, in effect, declaring war on the world  Some Qing commanders refused to work with the Boxers, who were being absorbed into state armies 20 o Originated in a province (Shandong?) where German influence was particularly prevalent i.e. missionaries, a naval base (established a “sphere of influence”)  Germans, therefore, were some of the first foreign victims of the Boxers - 8 nation force occupied Beijing for a year and a half – no Qing government in the city at this time; Dowager Cixi fled to the southwest o Not all foreign powers were Christian – Japanese nationals had not been attacked by the Boxers, but Japan joined the expedition to show that it was modernized, technologically competitive, an important partner to Western nations Treaty Ports – established by treaties signed by countries with China - 92 in all, open to foreign trade and settlement – extraterritorial privileges upheld in these areas (right to trial by someone from own nation) - Foreign populations remained small, but had consulates from many countries - Concessions – areas that could be leased to Britain for settlement o Not granted as territory, but leased – to build consulates, settle, build churches - Semi-colonial power over China? Despite having not taken territory away completely - Extraterritorial privileges lent a special status, similar to colonial power but not complete - “Hypo-colony” – Sun Yatsen; China not colonized, but China in even worse situation because of the multinational nature of foreign influence – not just one imperial power How was the new state constituted? - Sun Yatsen, 1866-1925 – a well recognized orator, known around the world - Student in Hawaii - Admired Taiping leader, Hong Xiuquan, a hero who resisted unjust imperial rule of the Manchus - Eclectic thinker who drew on Chinese and worldly traditions, folk tales, rhetoric - Developed into Anti-Manchu nationalist – Manchus not doing enough to protect China from foreign encroachments International intellectual current - Sun Yatsen promoted idea of restored Chinese political community – foreign rule of Mongols, Manchus – wanted to restore community of real Chinese nationals - Envisioned and promoted a democratic nation with an economic system based on equalized land rights, as most Chinese people were farmers at this time (emphasis on democracy – based on Western readings) - He believed that in this manner China could join the world community of nation- states on a more equal footing - Like others, he believed that national survival was at stake - “Chinese people are like a loose sheet of sand” – Need to develop national unity/common interests, sense of nationhood – believed national survival was at 21 stake, Chinese extinction (influenced by Social Darwinist thinking of the fight for survival) Sun’s idea of the Chinese race and nation - Sun Yatsen condemned the Manchus and sought to liberate the “sons of Han” - But the Wing rulers had established the idea of a multinational/multiethnic state – originates in Qianlong emperor (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Molsem, Tibetan) - Sun modified his statements to match – revolutionary flag bore 5 coloured stripes – changed tune, despite being anti-Manchu - As soon as revolution was successful, Manchus had to be incorporated into new China - “China” remains an inclusive concept Two leading intellectuals on federalism - Kang Youwei (1858-1927) “Local self-government” (1898) - Provinces should be abolished (1908) – self-government should be at a lower level - Liang Qichao (1873-1929) “The Basic ideas of Rousseau” (1901) o “Regionalists” cannot succeed (1911) - Revolution largely a confrontation between the centre and the provinces o Centre trying to strengthen itself to withstand foreign pressure, provincial elites did not see the centre as doing this effectively o Provinces withdrew support/loyalty in 1911 Reform and Revolution: How did Imperial China End - Guanxu Reign 1875-1908 - Rule of Dowager Cixi - Three leading Qing officials: Zhang Zhidong, Li Hongzhang, Yuan Shikai - War with Japan, Treaty of Shimonoseki - “Scramble for concessions” 1896-1898 - Boxer Uprising, Boxer Protocol 1901 - Beginning of “Qing Reforms” 1901 (people were impatient, still blamed Qing for weakness) - Russian-Japanese War 1905 - Constitutional Movement - Foundation of Tongmenghui - Railway Protection protest in Chengdu, August 1911 - Wuchang Mutiny - Inauguration of the Republic of China, with Sun Yatsen as provisional President January 1, 1912 HIST 299: China Since 1800 th Week 6, Monday, February 13: Intro to 20 century China Midterm Analysis - Too much context in doc analysis, not enough significance - Direct and succinct answers are best - As with Part B, essays in Part C needed to be more direct in answering the questions that were posed – insufficiently direct - Avoid teleological thinking in history – i.e. an inevitable end point 22 Lecture: The First Days of the new Republic - Yuan Shikai allied himself with the revolutionaries - His Presidency was the result of a compromise (the abdication) rather than election - A reformist, sympathetic with many revolutionary goals i.e. rejection of conservatism that impeded the progress and strengthening of China - The Republic of China was established on New Year‟s Day in 1912 (lunar vs. solar?) - Sun Yatsen was Provisional President, as part of the compromise while final arrangements were being made, with the new capital in Nanjing - Return to Nanjing was a symbolic return/restoration of Han rule, and closer to Sun Yatsen‟s revolutionaries in the South (Beijing in the north, the traditional Manchu/imperial capital) - Yuan pushed for Beijing as capital again, and took over as President - Would the new nation be constituted as a federation or as a unitary state? – preference for unitary state model, however the provinces did not agree with the centre over how to strengthen the new state o Provinces wanted to maintain autonomy until centre stabilized and gained power – but if the provinces had autonomy, how could the centre be strong? - Yuan made efforts to strengthen/centralize in relation to the provinces Three Stages - Military rule - Political Tutelage - Constitutional rule/rule by law o It was expected constitutional rule would take a decade to come about; however, it was still being planned in the 1940s Questions - What were the problems of the new state? - What problems did it inherit from the Empire? - Which was worse, imperial rule or “imperialism”? o Lenin: “Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism” - Was China accepted into the “family of nations” or “international community”? - How did imperialism affect the new Republic? The Birth of the Republic - A democratic moment: elections to the National Assembly - Yuan hobbled the Assembly - About 1% of the population was eligible to vote: male, over 21, some education, some property – capable of judging responsibly - Electors were elected – representatives who then chose from small pools of leading citizens to be members of the National Assemble (indirectly elected, therefore) - Party System o Favoured by Yuan and Sun Yatsen - Guomindang (People‟s Party) formed as successor to Tongmenghui o Most active of the parties in canvassing for votes, in more remote areas etc. o Guomindang won many more votes than the other parties – dominance 23 - Yuan made moves to hobble National Assemble dominated by Guomindang – as it was gaining momentum – a blow to the democratic proves, Song Jiaoren‟s assassination - Yuan had seemed at first to be open to the whole process, however Song (leader of Guomindang) was open in denouncing Yuan as beginning to subvert the democratic process (hence his assassination, although Yuan was never implicated) Yuan Shikai attempted to re-unify China’s administration - Fine to have provincial autonomy, with the provinces claiming to be strengthening China; however, after the Qing state collapsed, the provinces stopped sending revenue to centre o Fiscal system had become disunified o Yuan had to seek large loans o Provinces supported armies (?) o Opium revenues shrank as the suppression of opium grew - A paradox: to strengthen China vis-à-vis other states it was necessary to borrow money from those very countries – with strings attached (Yuan gave up some of his Presidency‟s fiscal authority in order to use the money to centralize) Yuan’s dictatorial impulse - A modern educationalist, a frustrated, progressive administrator, resorted to unilateral action – no patience for the National Assembly - Accepted many of a set of Twenty-One Demands from Japan in exchange for a huge loan o His unpopularity continued to grow o Japan wanted to set up a kind of parallel administration in China – a puppet state run by Japan o Civil war began in response to these demands – paradoxically, needed money to combat civil war o Japanese believed that they were more capable of running a modern state o Yuan declared himself Emperor; had some sympathetic leaders who encouraged this, that China needed an Emperor again i.e. legal advisor, USA Frank Goodnow  Misperceived the feelings of Chinese people o Yuan died suddenly of natural causes/illness – but also part of the shock of his dramatic decline in popularity – in 1916, a few months into his declared Dynasty - Yuan also considered to be the person who ushered in “warlordism” – warlord period of Chinese history began with Yuan‟s death – his martialism, his dictatorial methods - Between 1916 and 1927: 16 presidents and 25 different cabinets – chaos on Beijing o Constant efforts to make the parliamentary system work, the parties remained – but none of them were stable o Beijing lost control of Chinese affairs to the warlords – people who had come to power in the military hierarchy – a lack of civilian leaders during this period (11yrs) A competing republic in the south 24 - In 1917 Sun Yansen returned to Guandong to build up his power - In 1923 his Nationalist party established an alliance with the Communist International - In 1924, foundation of Whampoa (Huangpu) Military Academy with the aim of national re-unification of China and completion of the revolution - In his will (1925) Sun declared, “the Revolution has not yet been completed!” May Fourth Movement: Social, Intellectual and Political (1919) - Society should be renovated/renewed - Intellectual horizons were widened i.e. spread of Marxist/Communist discourse - National sovereignty should be restored Founders of the Chinese Communist Party (1921) - Two professors at Beijing University associated with publication La Jeunesse - Chen Dixiu (1880-1942) - Li Dazhao (author, Victory of Bolshevism) - Students were, to some extent, encouraged by these radical professors - New Youth magazine: science and democracy, rejection of Confucianism in social Darwinist terms of survival of nations and progress - Li Dazhao founded a Marxist Research Society, 1918 o Helped Mao Zedong find a job in Beijing University Library o Executed with 19 comrades in April, 1927 - Gregory Voitinsky: A Comintern agent who approached Li in Beijing and Chen in Shanghai in 1920: the CCP was founded in Shanghai in summer 1921 o A dozen or so actual members in this first incarnation o Mao Zedong one of the first members Rival Revolutionaries Arose from dissatisfaction with the revolution; - Chiang Kai-shek (seemed to be hand-picked by Sun Yatsen, who had other successors, but Chiang managed to push them out within a few years) - Chiang‟s rival Mao Zedong around the same time HIST 299: China Since 1800 Week 6, Thursday, February 16: Final Exam: - Same format as Midterm - Plus a map test (10%) – current map of China, not past o Major Cities, several major rivers, significant provinces (i.e. Ningxia, and the three North-eastern provinces of the Manchuria region) o Countries on the edges of China i.e. Vietnam, Russia, Koreas, Hong Kong/Taiwan, Mongolia (inner, etc.) Term Papers: - Proposals due Friday, March 2 - Confine essays to scope of assigned readings - Emphasis on primary documents (Cheng and Lestz, Schoppa, etc.) 25 - Not a research, but a „thought‟ or analytic reflection and interpretation paper – of primary source material o 2-3 documents? Focus on specified content, not number of sources - Proposal: Identify topic/subject area, which can be quite broad; no need for thesis… o Narrow, in-depth examination of a topic, but proposal can be initially broad o Marked on basis of potential and contentious effort - Topic formulation part of the assignment, from which will flow main point - Look for model proposal on Moodle on the break LECTURE China‟s „disintegration‟ - Yuan Shikai manoeuvres: Abolition of provincial assemblies, expulsion of the Guomindang, repression, parliamentary democracy is crushed - ROC limps on with loans - Sun Yatsen declares the real Republic, 1917 - Sun had difficulty finding a base, originally (GMD base in the south built up) - Agrees on cooperation with the Comintern (Communist International) o Looking for allies everywhere, to oppose Yuan and his Presidency o Comintern did not see Yuan as a communist revolutionary, but saw potential towards communism in the completion of the Revolution Sun had started  Another step along the way towards capitalism, then to communism… o Sun Yatsen died while in Beijing, while seeking alliances with military commanders in the region/warlords  Died feeling that he had not yet completed the Revolution - Three Principles: democracy, people‟s rights, and livelihood – became a kind of doctrine of the GMD after Sun‟s death After Sun’s death, 1925 - Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975): Emerged as successor of Sun o Native of Zhejiang, military school graduate, director of Whampao Academy in Guangzhou from 1923, assumed leadership of the Nationalist Party - Comintern arranged cooperation between GMD and CCP, continued - The Northern Expedition 1926-28: Military campaign to reunify China and re- establish the Republic – mobilization campaigns to reach out to the people, CCP and GMD cooperation o CCP still small at this time, absorbed as kind of wing of GMD o Largely successful, 1927-28 ROC formally re-established, and recognized as legitimate ROC by most of the Treaty Powers (transfer of recognition from government in Beijing, to government in Nanjing) o Goals of Northern Expedition: unity and anti-imperialism (i.e. foreign, militarist, capitalist imperialism, not imperial /dynastic rule) o Goal of unity never abandoned, but GMD adapted itself to imperialism? o Combating the warlords who had autonomy, bringing them under one government - Treaty Powers also recognized China‟s autonomy in establishing tariff protections – Tariff Autonomy won 1929; Nanjing government could now set its own tariffs, and before long was gathering significant revenue through the new customs system 26 - President Sun became a kind of figure head of GMD after his death, honoured as “father” - As the GMD moved further north, encountered larger concentrations of foreigners and imperialists, particularly in Shanghai - April, 1927: A sudden attack on the CCP by GMD troops, beginning in Shanghai – break with Comintern - Division into the GMD, United Front breaks down with crack-down on leftists in Shanghai (ironically because they were excited/agitated about the Northern Expedition) GMD splits into left and mainstream factions - Sun Yatsen‟s widow condemns these actions, not as what Sun wanted, who would have continued to cooperate with Comintern – but Chiang marries her sister, end of 1927; marriage was advantageous for Chiang - CCP goes underground – had been functioning openly with GMD, but once pushed out, regrouped in the country side/”bandit lairs” – Hunan, Fujian, Jiangxi Accommodation of Imperialism made by GMD Distinction between Colonialism and Imperialism – China never actually colonized officially by Britain, France, etc. like other places such as India, Vietnam – China is distinct, with a different kind of „colonial‟ period - Sun in his early days claimed that the Manchus were the colonizer – similar to how European powers were colonizing other places (however dropped this argument 1911, and Manchus became part of multi-ethnic ROC) - Semi-feudal – old, antiquated, obsolete /‟hyper‟ colonialism, worse than a colony, said Sun - Informal colonialism – Britain considered to be an informal imperial power in parts of the world, beyond formal colonies, including coastal China - Micro-colony? A few British micro-colonies in China (apart from Hong Kong) i.e. Weihaiwei on the north coast of Shandong, which was used as a naval base and subsequently returned to China in 1921 - A micro-colony in Shanghai, 1942-1943? HIST 299: China Since 1800 Week 7: Thursday, March 1, 2012 (Class Cancelled: Monday, February 27) - Warlord troops, search for bandits in 1923: soldiers tended to be very young, some were child soldiers - Lack of standard uniforms and equipment: not well equipped - Shangxi province: 1912-1949 period of warlordism, persisted - Chiang Kai-shek, mobilizing the masses (Revolutionary Army) to defeat the enemies of the Chinese people – warlords/regional power-holders and imperialists (capitalists) – political cartoon o Violence used to defeat violence: why is this above or better than ordinary warlords? o Can‟t be their revolutionary cause; some other warlords claimed to be revolutionaries - The Northern Expedition launched from the south (recap: goals of unity and anti- imperialism) against people in the North still ruling from Beijing 27 o Didn‟t fully succeed in defeating all the warlords, but some allied themselves with the expedition and some were defeated – resulting in a somewhat more unified China o Foreign countries therefore recognized the legitimacy of the new Republic of China with the capital in Nanjing “Imperialist” Power in China - Treaties between the Qing and sixteen “powers,” some of which were significant, others minimal with hardly any presence in China i.e. Peru, Mexico o But all had claims to certain privileges in China - Most Favoured Nation clause, 1842, introduced by Britain: all foreign territories were equal, all countries had whatever privileges another country gained - Most difficult privilege for the Guomindang to get rid of was extraterritoriality (the right to be tried by judge from your own country, if you entered into legal trouble in China) - By end of long century of Chinese humiliation, people were claiming vast privileges under extraterritoriality, de facto powers, i.e. exemption from taxation, that the treaties had never specified (you could not be prosecuted by Chinese government if you did not pay your taxes) - By the 1920s and 30s, foreigners, for these reasons, were highly resented by educated Chinese – treaties were unequal and asymmetrical from Chinese view - At the time the treaties were signed, extraterritoriality for a handful of foreigners did not seem like a significant concession to the Qing government – foreign presence expanded and began to take advantage, became an issue Foreign control of tariffs (tighter in 1911 until 1929) - Allowed new government to set own tariffs in aftermath of establishment of new Republic - Imperialist power started to be rolled back as China tried to increase autonomy - However, the powers increased their military presence in the 1920s and 30s – foreigners and foreign property could be at risk in such a revolutionary China - Full national sovereignty was GMD’s main goal, to be won peacefully after 1927 - Avoiding violence that could lead to retaliation & working through diplomacy with each country o Thought about working with the League of Nations, but better from China‟s autonomy and power standpoint to negotiate with each power individually o When did this process of gaining back autonomy end? 1943? 1945? 1947? 1999? o Or 1997, when Britain ended its ownership of Hong Kong? GMD vs. CCP from 1927 - CCP kicked out of GMD by Chiang, CCP regrouped in Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian provinces - CCP and GMD goals diverged too: both still committed to nationalism and anti- imperialism, but with different emphases and strategies o CCP emphasis on socialism o GMD emphasis on people‟s livelihood (?) 28 o Both developed doctrines based on Sun Yatsen – but he had said many things, some of them not always consistent, therefore feasible for two different doctrines to develop How to deal with Japan? 1927-1933 - Japan was reluctant to accept tariff autonomy – largest trading partner with China - Japan not favourable to the Northern Expedition and establishment of new Republic - Attacks the Nationalist Army, 1928, Jinan o No good reason, excuse to protect Japanese residents in that area o GMD was not yet strong enough to make an issue of this incident - Japan invades and takes over the Northeast, 1931 – China goes to the League of Nations, Japan walks out of meetings and League proved not very effective in protecting the principles it was founded on - Attacks Shanghai, 1932, between China and Japan – situation resolved because the other powers were highly interested in Shanghai (i.e. commercially) and needed stability, gradually contained - Establishes “Manchukuo” 1932, Manchus had become a minority in their own homeland due to migration, mostly composed now of ethnic Chinese o Japan claimed that the people of this area wanted to have their own government, despite China asserting that this was Chinese territory o Few countries recognized the legitimacy of this new state; principally countries who became allied with Japan during the Second World War o Installs Puyi as Kangde Emperor, 1933 – his reign ended in 1945 with WW2 defeat of Japan  A puppet emperor of Japanese military officers - Statue of Mao Zedong, November 3, 2009 near his hometown (inspired by Changsha poem, 1925) o Wondering who is in charge of destiny and vast nature? o Cast all restraints aside, filled with student enthusiasm o Able to change the flow of history, students in immense nature - CCP Soviets and base areas o “Soviets” in remote locations (known as “bandit lairs” to the GMD) o Five “Bandit Encirclement” campaigns, 1929-34 o 5 campaign was successful in greatly reducing CCP strength o The Long March (1934-35): 6000 mile trek from Jiangxi to Shaanxi (chasing CCP retreat, ended up in Shaanxi location; 1/10 of the (CCP?) army survived)  What had gone wrong for the CCP?  Mao rose to high level in the party during the March (mid-1930s) o The Zunyi Conference (Guizhou ? Center of the Chinese Communist Movement, 1935-1947 - Yan‟an: a county town in Shaanxi province, from 1935 the main CCP base - From 1937, capital of Shaan-Ning-Gan Border Area Government - Recognized by GMD as legitimate government?! GMD defeat, CCP victory in 1949 – why? - Mao Zedong had more popular appeal, i.e. charisma, poetry, more engaging speeches 29 - Deficiencies on the party of Chian Kai-shek: his government generally being weak, not controlling/uniting China, corruption o VS. CCP administrative talent - Japanese invasion: Chiang had to defend China against onslaught of the army of a more modernized, industrialized country - Each reason is a generalization… but in combination… - What later became Mao‟s “thought” or Maoism was worked out by talking and interacting with people, contemporaries i.e. Qiang Jing, Mao‟s future wife who joined
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