HLTH 101 Lecture Notes - Zoonosis, Tetanus, Anemia

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
Queen's University
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTH 101
Professor
Lecture 1: Intro to the study of health & disease
Mortality: a rate expressing deaths per unit of time
a.
Measuring how many people get sick per year, interest in quantity of sickness in
a given amount of time
i.
Morbidity: a rate of how many people have a syndrome/disease
b.
acquire a disease in a particular year, how many people enter a certain category
of disease per year, expressed as a number per year (i.e. 20 000 new cases of
cancer per year)
i.
Incidence: rate used to measure mortality or morbidity
c.
d.
Healthy Unhealthy, must believe that it can change, foundation of practice
i.
Health status changes over time
a.
Apply scientific principles to causes and come to an understanding
i.
We can learn the causes of health changes
b.
Debatable techniques (drug addiction)
i.
We can use knowledge to change health status
c.
First principles of health research and practice
2.
Measuring the impact of disease
1.
p
Lecture 1- Intro to the study of health and disease
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Lecture 2: The History of Human Mortality
Palaeolithic Era: did not have nutrient insufficiency, agricultural backgrounds
1.
Ideal survival curve would resemble a rectangle
2.
Life expectancy has not changed, however proportion of population who are able to reach that
age has increased, mainly due to the reduction in infant mortality, more likely to die from cancer
in the present
3.
September 12, 2008
The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
Less likely to die from infectious diseases, more likely to die from chronic diseases
1.
Tetanus, rabies
i.
Random, occasional, we’re not surprised to hear about, infrequent
a.
Sporadic
1.
Common cold, chicken poxs, Lyme disease (varies as a function of residence,
acquired off a deer tick, must have large pop of deer to maintain tick
population)
i.
Diseases that occur at a low constant rate, minor fluctuations
a.
Endemic
2.
Increased morbidity, problem for public health units, formally sporadic or endemic,
upgraded
a.
Common source epidemics- happens very quickly then dies down, food/water
contamination, one particular source
i.
Propagated epidemics-different sources, starts from case 0, slower rate
(chicken pox’s, measles, mumps, rubella)
ii.
Two types
b.
Epidemic
3.
AIDS, influenza
i.
Scary ones, to individual pandemic/epidemic doesnt matter, spreads globally from
continent to continent
a.
Pandemic
4.
Classification of Infectious Diseases
Source of residing pathogen in nature, often mixed up with the host, can be living or non
living
a.
Animals (zoonoses): example is hantavirus (rodents), 50% mortality, rabies
(animals), malaria, lyme disease (deer)
i.
meningitis (drops of liquid, condensation liquid from throat), hits young
people,
I.
typhoid fever, spread by feces
II.
Humans: human products
ii.
Active carriers- only a threat once symptoms are evident
iii.
Healthy carriers- people that have been exposed but do not display any
symptoms
iv.
Chronic carriers- resembles healthy carriers, have recovered from the disease,
v.
Living
b.
Reservoirs
1.
Cycles of Infectious Diseases
Lecture 2- History of Human Mortality
September-15-08
10:04 AM
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Chronic carriers- resembles healthy carriers, have recovered from the disease,
can be a carrier because diagnosed at a point in time, could be in a sub clinical
state (Hep B/ Hep C)
v.
Bacterial spores, inert form, survive oxygen deficiency, extreme temperatures
i.
Eggs, can live in the soil, (anthrax exposed because soil was excavated)
ii.
Non Living
c.
Transmission: means for the pathogen to enter from reservoir to the host, enter through a
portal of entry
d.
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Document Summary

Lecture 1- intro to the study of health and disease. Lecture 1: intro to the study of health & disease. Mortality: a rate expressing deaths per unit of time. Morbidity: a rate of how many people have a syndrome/disease i. Measuring how many people get sick per year, interest in quantity of sickness in a given amount of time c. Prevalence: the ratio of the total number of individuals who have a disease at a particular time to the population at risk of having the disease. Cumulative over time (80 000 cases over time of cancer, 60 000 old, 20 000 new) Healthy unhealthy, must believe that it can change, foundation of practice b. We can learn the causes of health changes i. Apply scientific principles to causes and come to an understanding c. We can use knowledge to change health status i. Palaeolithic era: did not have nutrient insufficiency, agricultural backgrounds.