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Lecture 5

HLTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Gini Coefficient, Infant Mortality, Literacy Test


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Professor
Elaine Power
Lecture
5

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HLTH 101 Lecture 5
Income Inequality
What is Income Inequality?
Income inequality refers to the uneven distribution of income in a specific geographic
area, such as a city, province or country
In other words, it is the gap in wealth between the richest and the poorest people in
any geographic location
Income as a Health Determinant
Income is the most decisive health determinant
o Why?
Income often decides the availability or access of resources people
have
For example, poor people have less access to medical resources
including hospitals, clinics, and specialists
This is especially true for poor, segregated communities and Indigenous
reserves
Wealthier people can afford medical resources of all types and in the
case of a lack of
physical
access to medical resources, they have better
means of traveling to towns or cities that do have the resources
available
Wealthier people also have more access to the best quality healthcare,
whether it means traveling to another city or another country to access
such care
Wilkinson has hypothesized that the level of income inequality explains life
󴊩󴊼󴊴󴊩󴊧󴊸󴊥󴊲󴊧󴊽, 󴊳󴊲󴊧󴊩 󴊥 󴊧󴊳󴊹󴊲󴊸󴊶󴊽’󴊷 GDP 󴊭󴊷 󴊦󴊭󴊫 󴊩󴊲󴊳󴊹󴊫󴊬 󴊸󴊳 󴊱󴊩󴊩󴊸 󴊱󴊳󴊷󴊸 󴊴󴊩󴊳󴊴󴊰󴊩’󴊷 󴊦󴊥󴊷󴊭󴊧 󴊲󴊩󴊩󴊨󴊷.
The United States, the richest country in the world, has a relatively high level of
income inequality, with a Gini coefficient of 0.4.
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