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Lecture 23

HLTH 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Tubal Ligation, Ejaculatory Duct, Sexually Transmitted Infection


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 102
Professor
Jennifer Tomasone
Lecture
23

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Readings: Chp 11: Healthy Sexuality (pg 355-369)
Sexual Behaviour
Contraception
Reversible Contraception
Responsible Sexual Behaviour:
-Open, Honest Communication: What does sex mean to you
-Agreed-On Sexual Activities
-Sexual Privacy: Respecting one another, not engaging in activities in the presence of others that make
them feel uncomfortable
-Using Contraception
-Safer Sex: Fight against sexually transmitted diseases
-Sober Sex: alcohol and drugs increase the risk of unplanned, unprotected sexual activity- also has
negative effects on sexual performance (hard of man to achieve erection, decrease vaginal lubrication in
women, organisms more difficult- long term= men: reduce testosterone in, erectile dysfunction,
infertility, and body changes eg: enlarged breasts, women: menstrual abnormalities, decreased sexual
function
-Foreplay: Kissing, touching, and any form of oral or genital contract that stimulates people toward
intercourse
-Cunniligus: oral stimulation of the female genitals
-Fellatio: oral stimulation of the penis
-Sexual intercourse: Sexual relations involving genital union (also called coitus a.k.a. making love)
-Sexual coercion: The use of physical or psychological force or intimidation to make a person submit to
sexual demands
Reversible Contraception
-Birth control: The practice of managing fertility and preventing unwanted pregnancies
-Conception: The fusion of ovum and sperm, resulting in a fertilized egg, or zygote
-Contraception: The prevention of conception through the use of a device, substance, or method
-Barrier methods: A contraceptive that acts as physical barrier, blocking the sperm from reaching the
egg
-Hormonal methods: A contraceptive that alters the biochemistry of the woman’s body, preventing
ovulation and making it more difficult for the sperm to reach the egg if ovulation does occur
-Natural method: An approach to contraception that does not use drugs or devices; requires avoiding
inercourse during the time in a woman’s menstrual cycle when an egg is likely to be present, at the site of
conception and the risk of pregnancy is the greatest
-Surgical methods: Sterilization of a male or female to permanently prevent the transport of sperm or
eggs to the site of conception
-Sterilization: Surgically altering the reproductive system to prevent pregnancy
-Tubal sterilization: Severing or blocking the oviducts to prevent eggs from reaching the uterus; also
called tubal ligation
-Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus
-Vasectomy: The surgical severing of the ducts that carry sperm to the ejaculatory duct

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Hormonal Method
-Oral contraceptive (OC): Any various hormone compounds (estrogen and progestins) in pill form that
prevent conception by preventing ovulation (mimics the activity of the corpus luteum)- also inhibits the
movement of sperm by thickening the cervical mucus, alters the rate of ovum transport by means of its
hormonal effects on the oviducts, and may prevent implantation by changing the lining of the uterus, in
the unlikely event that a fertilized ovum reaches the area
Advantages: Effective in preventing pregnancy, women gain fertility after use, failure rate of
preventing pregnancy is extremely low
Disadvantages: Does not prevent STIs, short term and long term side effects
-Contraceptive Skin Patch: thin patch that releases estrogen and progestin into the bloodstream
Advantages: Weekly use, not daily use, higly effective (0.3% failure rate)
Disadvantages: skin irritation, increase side effects with women who smoke, less effective for
women over 90 kgs, similar to OC
-Vaginal Contraceptive Ring: Moulded with a mixture of progestin and estrogen, slowly releases
hormones and maintains blood hormone levels
Advantages: One month of protection with no daily or weekly action required
Disadvantages: no protection against STIs, vaginal discharge, similar to OC
-Contraceptive Implant: Placed under the skin of the upper arm and delivers a small but steady does of
progestin (a synthetic progesterone) over the period of yeas- hormonal shift may inhibit ovulation and
affect the development of uterine lining- thickening cervical mucus, affecting movement of the sperm
*Best for women that want continuous, long-term protection against pregnancy
Advantages: Highly effective, steady flow of progestin, failure rate is 0.1% (extremely low)
Disadvantages: No protection against STDs and HIV, menstrual irregularities
-Injectable Contraceptives: hormonal contraceptive injections
Advantages: total privacy because it has not trace, periodic injections, no estrogen-related side
effects, minor surgical procedure
Disadvantages: no protection against STDs, decreased bone density, need to do weight bearing
exercise
-Emergency contraception: A birth control method used after unprotected sexual intercourse has
occurred (inhibiting or delaying ovulation by altering the transport of the sperm to the eggs- do not
affect a fertile egg that is already implanted into the uterus)
-Abortifacient: An agent or a substance that induces abortion
Barrier Methods
-Intrauterine device (IUD): A plastic device inserted into the uterus as a contraceptive- primarily work
to prevent fertilization by having biochemical changes in the uterus and affect the movement of sperm
and eggs, inserted anytime during menstrual cycle
Advantages: Reliable, convenient to use, reduce the risk of developing endometrial cancer by
40%
Disadvantages: genital tract, pain, uterine cramps and backache in people that have never been
pregnant- pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)- not recommended for women with high STIs,-
danger signs= abdominal pain, fever, chills, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, irregular menstrual
periods, unusual vaginal bleeding
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-Male condoms: thin sheath designed to cover the penis during sexual intercourse-prevent sperm from
entering the vagina and provide protection against disease
Advantages: easy to purchase, protect women from HPV which causes cervical cancer
Disadvantages: diminish sensation, first time users have a failure rate of 17.4%- condom can
break or be careless removed= use vaginal spermicide
-Female condom: latex or polyurethane pouch that can be inserted into woman’s vagina, inserted 8 hours
before sexual intercourse , and needs lubricant or spermicide to prevent penile irritation , twist and
squeeze outer ring to prevent spilling of semen
Advantages: control it gives women on contraception and STI prevention , better prevention
against genital warts or herpes (because the outer part covers the areas around the vaginal
opening as well as the base of penis during intercourse)
Disadvantages: bothersome during foreplay, one time use like condoms, high first-year failure
rate of 27%
-Diaphragm: A contraceptive device consisting of a flexible, dome-shaped cup that covers the cervix and
prevents sperm from entering the uterus- prescription
Advantages: less intrusive than the male condom, inserted up to 6 hours before intercourse
Disadvantages: must always be used with a spermicide, must be cleaned and stored with care to
preserve their effectiveness, slight increase risk of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) -Toxic shock
syndrome (TSS): A bacterial disease usually associated with tampon use; can also occur in men;
symptoms include weakness, cold and clammy hands, fever, nausea, and headache. TSS can
progress to life-threatening complications, including very low blood pressure (shock) and kidney
and liver failure , failure from incorrect insertion, inaccurate fitting
-Lea’s Shield: one size fits all diapharm like-device, made with silicone rubber, valve that allows the flow
of air and fluids from the cervic as well as loop that aids in insertion and removal - needs spermicide
-FemCap: A small flexible cap that fits over the cervix, placed in by suction, to be used with spermicide,
brim around the dome to hold spermicide and trap sperm and a removable strap over the dome
Advantages: partial STI protection, alternative for diaphragm
Disadvantages: difficulty with insertion or removal
-Contraceptive Sponge: A contraceptive device about five centimetres in diameter that fits over the
cervix and acts as a barrier, spermicide, and seminal fluid absorbent
Advantages: partial protection to STIs, no presctiption
Disadvantages: difficulty in removal and unplesant odour of sponge if left for 18+ hours, allergic
reactions are most common in this spermicide product because of likelihood of overdosing
-Vaginal Spermicides: without the bulk of a diaphragm, Eg: foam, creams, jellies, suppositories, films
-Douche: To apply a stream of water or other solutions to a body part or cavity, such as the vagina; not
a contraceptive technique
Advantages: simple, complete and immediate reversiblity
Disdvantages: inserted shortly before intercourse, slight increase of vaginal fluids, increse in
yeast infections, and urinary tract infections
Methods of Abortion
-Abortion: The artificially induced expulsion of an embryo or a fetus from the uterus
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