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Lecture 3

Carbs, Starches (week 3).docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 230
Jeffery Lalonde

Glucose  Supplies energy to the brain and muscles  We do not get most glucose by eating it directly  We get glucose by eating carbohydrates  Carbohydrates o Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen o Arranged in monosaccharides and multiples of monosaccharides o Have ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule  Can be found in plant foods  Whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits  Found in dairy  Milk, sour cream  NOT in meat products  Simple Carbohydrates (the sugars) o Monosaccharides  Single sugar  Glucose  Mildly sweet  Essential energy sources for body acitivties  Included in blood sugar  Always the first sugar in disaccharides  Can be refined into dextrose  Fructose  Sweetest  Occurs naturally in fruit and honey  Galactose  Not sweet  Occurs in small amounts in fermented milk products (yogurt, aged cheese) o Disaccharides  Two pairs of monosaccharides  Always paired with glucose  Formed by a condensation reaction  Hydroxl and hydrogen come together  Form water molecule  Hydrolysis breaks disaccharide in 2  Occurs in digestion  Maltose  Glucose + glucose  Produced with starch breakdown  When making alcohol  Sucrose  Glucose + fructose  Sweetest of disacchrides  Occurs in fruits vegetables and grains  Table sugar  Lactose  Glucose + Galactose  Milk sugar  Principle carb in milk  Provides energy in milk o Polysaccharides  Chains of monosaccharides  Contain many glucose units  Contain monosaccharides  Glycogen  Built from glucose  Form of energy storage in animal bodies  Stores glucose for future use  Long branched chains of glucose o Branch structure allows for rapid hydrolysis  Stored in muscle and liver o Not significant source of carbohydrate from food  Starches  Energy storage in plants  Also built from glucose units o Branched chains  Grains are rich in starch o Amylopectin BIGGER - BRANCHED  Branched starch  potato o Amylose  Unbranched starch  Wheat flour, rice  Resistant starches o Escape absorption and digestion in the small intestine o Due to the foods physical properties o Can help support a healthy colon  Fibres  Provide structure in stems, trunks, roots, leaves  Contains a variety of monosaccharides and others in fibre  Most are polysaccharides  Dietary Fibre o Nonstarch polysaccharides in plant foots o Not digested by human digestive enzymes o Can be digested by bacteria o Cannot be broken down  Starches can be broken down o Provide little or no energy  Monosaccharides are not produced  Nonstarch Polysaccharides o Cellulose o Pectins o Gums o Mucilages o Hemicellulose  Nonpolysaccharides  Not made of monosaccharides o Lignins o Cutins o Tannins  Soluble Fibres o Dissolve in water o Viscous – the form a gel o Digested by bacteria in colon (fermentable)  Found in oats, barley, legumes, citris fruit  Protects against diabetes and heart disease  Lower blood glucose and cholesterol  Gum (food additive)  Pectins (jams)  Psyllium (cereal)  Insoluble Fibres o Do not dissolve in water o Do not form gels (non viscous) o Found in whole grains and vegetables o Promote bowl movements  Cellulose  Lignins (stems, seeds)  Hemicelluloses  Phytic Acid o Not dietary fibre but found in fiber rich food o Limiting mineral absorption Adequate Intake for Fibre  Men 38g (when aged 19-50) 30g (when aged 51-70)  Women 25g (when aged 19-50) and 21g (when aged 50-70)  Fibre helps alleviate constipation  Fuel for colon cells  Nutrient rich, low energy density o Contribute to satiety Fibre and GI health  Whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits supply starch, fibre and sugars. They also provide vitamins, minerals and are low in fat  Enhance health of large intestine walls  Keeps stools moving so appendix does not get blocked  Reduce pressure in bowels preventing hemorrhoids  Helps GI tract maintain strength o Diverticular Disease  Intestinal wall develops bulges in weekend areas  Diverticula  The bulging pockets o Diverticulitis  Bulging pockets are infected and inflamed  Should avoid fibre  Drink plenty of water  Heart disease o Diets rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits o Lower blood pressure o Reduces inflammation o High fibre are lower in animal fat and cholesterol  Soluable fibres bind with bile acids so they are excreted  Cholesterol forms bile acids, so cholesterol is used and have less in the body  Diabetes o Fibres delay digestion o Slows glucose absoption  Cancer o Fibre helps by removing cancer causing agents from the colon o Stimulates bacterial fermentation which lowers PH o Can inhibit cancer growth  Weight management o Fibre foods tend to be low in fat and refined carbs  Less energy dense o Fibre absorbs in the stomach  Creates bulk  Delays hunger o Fibre delays digestion also delaying hunger  Potentially harmful Effects o Excess fibre may prevent body from getting Kcalorie needs o Can cause diarrhea  Fibre increase gradually over weeks  Drink plenty of fluids Carbohydrate Digestion  Mouth o Chewing food stimulates saliva production o Amylase hydrolyzes starch  Creates smaller polysaccharides and maltose  Stomach o Bolus mixes with stomach acid o Inactivates salivary amylase  When there is too much acid, saliva stops working o Stomach acid breaks down starch  No enzyme digestion of starch in the stomach o Fibres linger in the stomach  Delays gastric emptying  Contributes to satiety  Small intestine o Ase – enzyme o Ose – carbohydrate o Most of carb digestion takes place here o Pancreatic amylase enters small intestine  Breaks down polysaccharides into dis
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