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Week one- HEALTH 230.docx

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 230
Kyra Pyke

WEEK ONE: HEALTH 230 CHAPTER ONE DEFINITIONS: Nutrition: the science of the nutrients in foods and their actions within the body. A broader definition includes the study of human behaviors related to food and eating Chronic diseases: diseases characterized by slow progression and long duration. Examples include heart disease and some cancers. (chronos = time) Diet: the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks Functional foods: foods that contain bioactive components that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions Phytochemicals: nonnutrient compounds found in plants. Some phytochemicals have biological activities in the body Nutrients: chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance and repair of the body’s tissues. They may also lower risk of some diseases ** Six classes of nutrients: - carbohydrates - lipids (fat) - protein - vitamins - minerals (inorganic) - water (inorganic) Inorganic: not containing carbon or pertaining to living things Organic: in chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds. Energy-yielding nutrients: carbohydrate (4 kcal/g), fat (9kcal/g), and protein (4 kcal/g) Calories: units by which energy is measured. Also known as kilocalories Energy density: a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food (kcalories per gram) ** See page 10 in textbook to help “calculate the energy available from foods” and the percentage of each Vitamins: organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health Minerals: inorganic elements. Some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health Genome: the complete set of genetic material (DNA) in an organism or a cell. The study of genomes is called genomics Dietary Reference intakes (DRI): a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the United States and Canada. The values are used for planning and assessing diets and include: estimated average requirements (EAR), recommended dietary allowances (RDA), adequate intakes (AI), tolerable upper intake levels (UL) Estimated average requirements (EAR): the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the health people of a given age and gender Recommended dietary allowance (RDA): the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals Adequate intake (AI): the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined Tolerable upper intake level (UL): the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for the most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects Estimated energy requirement (EER): the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height and level of physical activity Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR): ranges of intake for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduces the risk of chronic diseases ** 45% – 65% kcalories from carbohydrates ** 20% - 30% kcalories from fat ** 10% - 35% kcalories from protein Undernutrition: deficient energy or nutrients Overnutrition: excess energy or nutrients Nutrition assessment: a comprehensive analysis of a person’s nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations and laboratory tests Anthropometric: relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight Primary deficiency: a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient Secondary deficiency: a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion or destroys the nutrient Subclinical deficiency: a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared ** Leading causes of death: 1. heart diseases 2. cancers 3. chronic lung disease 4. strokes 5. accidents 6. alzheimers disease 7. diabetes mellitus CHAPTER TWO DEFINITIONS: ** Diet planning principles: - ade
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