Class Notes (834,049)
Canada (508,296)
HLTH 237 (17)
Ron Shore (16)
Lecture 2

Drugs, week 2.docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 237
Ron Shore

Alcohol  Most are moderate drinkers  79% people report consuming alcohol  44% drink weekly  Higher drinking among males  o 90% of people consuming alcohol in past year are 18- 24 years old  Categories of Drinkers o Light Infrequent drinkers 38%  Drink less than one a week, less than 5 drinks when drinking o Light frequent drinkers 27%  Once a week or more, less than 5 drinks when drinking o Heavy Infrequent 5%  Less than once a week, but drink 5 or more when drinking o Heavy Frequent 7%  More than once a week, drink five drinks or more  Heavy Drinking o 5 or more drinks if male o 4 or more drinks if female  Males 18-24 more likely to heavy drink  Low Risk Drinking Guidelines o Males  No more than 15 a week or 3 a day o Females  No more than 10 a week or 2 a day o 22% people exceed this  Males 18-24 who are single are most likely to exceed this  High Risk Drinking o More associated with youth o Males higher than females (25% vs. 8%)  Harms Due To Alcohol Use o Harm to others o Marriage problems o Insults humiliation o Arguments and quarrels o Verbal abuse o Physical altercations  Harms to self o Affect social life o Physical health  Province Comparisons – Alcohol o High rates in Quebec, Alberta o Low rates in PEI, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labrador Cannabis  44% of Canadians use cannabis o Males more likely than females o Younger people more likely o More likely to be unmarried  Lifetime use rises with education level  Lifetime use increases with income  Provincial Comparisons o Higher use in BC, Alberta o Lower in Ontario, Labrador, PEI  Illicit Drugs o Drugs that are under government control Other Drug Use  44% cannabis use  11% Hallucinogens  10% Cocaine  6% Speed  4% ecstasy  1% heroine, steroids, injection drugs Lifetime Illicit Drug Use  1 in 6 canadians have used an illicit drug  lifetime drug use higher in men, 18-24, in Quebec, Alberta, single  Harm from Illicit Drug Use o Physical health o Social life 22% o Home and marriage o Work o Financial health Changes  Canadian drinking has increased from 77% to 79%  Illicit drug uses has also increased Drug  Psychoactive drug can be a chemical not found in the body  Can be a chemical found in the body but administered in a larger dose than normal to the body o Administered with intent to produce a change in body functioning  A substance that alters structure or function of the body or mind  A substance that alters mental processes such as cognition  Psychoactive drugs o Alter brain function by decreasing or increasing, or disrupting Central Nervous System activity o Produces changes in mood, perception, sensation, consciousness, or other psychological function o Changes behaviour o Can change body activity  Respiration, heart rate, hormones Misuse  Improper or inappropriate use of a drug Abuse  Implies social disapproval  Usually chronic use that inflicts harm to self or others o Can include physical harm, loss of quality of life, social problems, legal problems Addiction  Old term, replaced with dependence  Greek – bound, or devoted to a practice  Implies loss of control  Sacrifice of other life pursuits  Inability to resist  Compulsive behaviour Dependence  Part of DSM IV criteria  Implies physical and psychological dependency  Maladaptive pattern of substance use (not proper use)  Leads to significant impairment or distress  Exhibit tolerance and withdrawal  Consume large amounts over longer periods that intended  Great deal of time spent on obtaining, using, or recovering from
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