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Why Do We Use, week 7.docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 237
Ron Shore

Ways to Assess Alcohol Problems  MAST – Michigan Alcohol Assessment Screening Tool  World Health Organization – AUDIT tool  Centre for Addiction and Mental Health – Evaluate your drinking  CAGE assessment tool CAGE Assessment  C o Cut down  Has anyone ever recommended that you cut down drinking?  A o Annoyed  Have you ever felt annoyed if someone comments on your using  G o Guilty  Do you feel guilty or regret things that occurred because of your drinking?  E o Eye opener  Have you ever used drugs or alcohol in the morning to study your nerves Neurophysiology  Brain is filled with nerves and fibres, all connected  Nerve cells are information centers o Carry messages o Electrical impulse travels through cells  Cells release chemicals after impulse into synapse  Chemicals attach to nerve cell briefly  Reuptake removes chemical and returns it to original cell  Neurotransmitters o Chemicals that transmit information from cell to cell  Information is transmitted to other cells using fibres and electrical charges  Receptors o Recognize neurotransmitter molecules o When activated, lead to change in electric activity of neurons  Eg excitatory activity  Inhibitory activity  Synapses o Gaps between fibers  Psychoactive Drugs o Enter the brain and effect which transmitters/chemicals get released into synapse o Chronic use can affect process and structure of the brain Major Neurotransmitters  Dopamine o Feelings of pleasure o Associated with thought processes and coordination and movement o Many drugs have first effect on dopamine  Results in rush  Drugs can prevent reuptake of dopamine, effects last longer o Illicit positive rewards and reinforcement  Feel good feeling, want to do it again  Causes addiction  Norepinephrine o Natural stimulant  Increases alertness, mental focus, wakefulness o Initiation of food intake o Fight or flight response  Increased adrenaline – epinephrine  Increased output of stress hormones  Results in susceptibility  Serotonin o Affects mood  Low levels correlated with depression, aggression, irritability o Helps regulate sleep, appetite, sexual functions o Hallucinogens affect serotonin o Can help regulate other neurochemicals  GABA – gamma aminobutric acid o Inhibitory neurotransmitter o Calms electrical activity o Suppresses hyperactivity  Calms but allows to be alert, higher mental functions o Lack of anxiety, worry, stress o GABA inhibitions can lead to seizures  Endorphins o Produce effect similar to opioid o Morphine like substances o Pain relief o Associated with feelings of well being, happiness Other Neurotransmitters  Glutamate o Excitatory neurochemical  Anandamide o Associated with brains ability to coordinate and retrieve memory  Acetylcholine o Transmission of orders to muscular system o Formation of memory Drug Use as Self Medication, Coping  Self Medication Theory o Psychological theory of drug use o Certain populations have high rates of trauma that can lead to addiction o Drugs used in as a stress response and coping o Drug use as control, taking control of something in their lives o People become addicted to drugs instead of having healthy relationships with people  Khantzian – Addiction as a Human Process – Self Regulation o Substance abuse as a self regulation disorder  Drug problems arise from th
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