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HLTH 237 (17)
Ron Shore (16)

Physiology - Drugs.docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 237
Ron Shore

Physiology – Drugs and the Body  First enters bloodstream  Distributes through body through circulation  Drug acts on brain  Body metabolizes and eliminates the drug o Liver metabolizes drug  Drugs eliminated through kidneys and feces  Effect on brain o After bloodstream, drug enters brain o Blood brain barrier does not allow for free access for drug to enter brain  Fat soluble drugs enter brain more easily than water soluble The Brain  Cells in brain = neurons o Neurons can fire ―excitation‖ o Neurons transmit and receive information  Once neurons are excited, electral impulse travels across cell and body o Neurotransmitters – biochemichals  Stored in presynaptic axon  Neurotransmitters in neurons  6 Types of Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine o Dopamine o Endogenous opiod neurotransmitters o GABA – gamma aminobutric acid o Norepinephrine o Serotonin  When presynaptic cell is excited it releases neurotransmitters o Released into synapse o Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the dendrite  Receptors are specific  Only certain neurotransmitters can bind with a given receptor  After binding to receptor o Neurotransmitters becomes deactivated by re-uptake o Neurotransmitters becomes metabolized Drug Effects  Drug Action o Modification of the neurotransmitters function on the synapse  Drugs alter functions at cell level o Drugs can disrupt cell production o Drugs can disrupt storage or release of neurotransmitter o Drugs can interfere with interaction at receptor o Drugs can prevent the deactivation of neurotransmitter (prevents reuptake)  Drug – Receptor Interaction o Drug molecules can bind to a receptor o Drug molecules can produce an effect if bound to a receptor  Agonists  Drugs that bind and produce an effect  Partial agonists  Bind and have partial effect  Antagonists  Drugs that bind and have no effect on the cell Pharmakinetics  How drugs get into the body  Where the drug has its effect  Includes o Routes of administration  How you are taking the drug o Distribution through the body o Breakdown and elimination of the drug from the body Routes of Administration  Different ways of taking the drug effect how fast the drug enters the blood stream and reaches the brain o The faster the drug reaches the brain, the more intense the response o The faster it enters, the shorter the half life  Routes of administration effects abuse potential o Due to intensity and half life of certain routes of administration  More intense, more abuse  Slowest to Fastest Routes of Administration
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