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Lecture 1

HLTH237 Lecture 1: Week1.docx

Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 237
N/ A

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-Drug: Anything taken into the body for the purpose of altering one’s physical/psychological state
-Includes medication that can be prescribed, herbs, items that can be consumed as “food, or drugs that are
considered illicit
-5 drug classifications
-All drugs have the capacity to be rewarding
-4 dimensions of addiction: biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual
Drug Choices
-Drug is physically available
-Drug is psychologically available
-Choice and temperament
-Liking the effect of the drug
-Personal image and peer group approbation
Drug Misuse
-Drug use falls on a continuum
-Siegel’s patterns of drug use:
Opponent-process theory (Richard Solomon)
-Most organisms behave in a direction of restoring bodily functions to a normal state
-The brains of all mammals are organized to oppose or suppress many types of emotional arousals or
hedonic processes, whether they have been generated by positive or negative reinforcers
Addiction: condition whereby life’s possibilities become telescoped, reduced to a self-limiting fixation on one
manner of coping and of self-mastery. It is a loss of control in which choices is overcome by need.
Reward & Reinforcement
-Both the onset of the pleasurable effect and the amelioration of the withdrawal effect create a reward for
the subject
-Animal studies “going back for more”
-The reward positively reinforcing the behaviours
-Key is in self-administration; shared hardwiring between animals and humans
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