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HLTH 323 (33)
Lecture

Health Promotion, week 1.docx

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTH 323
Professor
Stevenson Fergus
Semester
Winter

Description
Health Promotion  2 Views of Health Promotion o Individual Focus  Key aim is to inform people about how behaviour and lifestyle affect their health  Helping change behaviour  Informing  Changing attitudes and values o Policy Level Focus  Raise awareness  Socioeconomic policies at national and local levels  How certain policies are not helping towards good health  Changing these policies  Trying to benefit everyone  Helping minority groups Philosophies of Health Promotion  Medical Approach o Medical intervention o Testing o Curing disease  Behaviour Change Approach o Change attitudes and beliefs  Eg becoming more physically active  Using condoms o Ethical concern  We are not experts  We have no right to try and change someone  Educational Approach o Providing information  Client Centered Approach o Working with individuals and their beliefs o Specific clients with specific needs  Self empowerment  Societal Change Approach o Policy change o Change attitude in culture as a whole  Eclectic Approach o Variety of methods o Different for everyone o Based on resources and the type of society Pre -1980’s Health Education  1950 was Medical Approach o Providing vaccines  Focused on individuals o Providing people with knowledge  Telling people what is bad o Focus on changes in behaviour and attitudes  Criticism o Ignores social factors  The burden was on the individual o Assumes individual agency  Assumes people can act on their own  People may be dependant on others  Need a better environment o Blaming the victim o Not successful for those without resources 1974 – Lalonde Report  Internationally influential  Introduced o Health Field Concept – 4 Factors to Health  Human biology  Environment  Lifestyle  Health care organization  How we actually provide health care to people  Emphasis on prevention o Cheaper on the health care system to prevent disease o Using Canadian money efficiently 1978 – WHO Declaration of Alma – Ata  Primary Health Care o Prevention AND health promotion, rehabilitation o Local characteristics  Community and individual participation are key  Doctors aren’t enough to fix health problems o Includes many different sectors  Not just health  Health declared as a human right  Governments are now responsible for health 1986 – Epp Report – Achieving Health for All – Health Promotion  Jake Epp (National Health and Welfare – Canada) o Called for greater emphasis on health promotion  3 Challenges for Health Promotion o Reducing Inequities  Socioeconomic status  Minority status  Class, race  Reducing the differences between groups o Increasing Prevention Effort
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