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Lecture 4

Planning Health Promotion, week 4.docx

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Health Studies
HLTH 323
Stevenson Fergus

Planning Health Promotion  4 Fundamental Questions to Planning o Where are we now?  Geographic location of the population being studied  Current mental position of population  Financial position of population o Where do we want to go?  Depending on where you are now, where do you want to go from there?  What do you want to change o How will we get there?  Once you decide where you want to go, see what resources are available  Options on how to go where you want to go o How will we know when we get there?  Evaluation  Are goals achieved?  More money  A change in peoples attitudes Why is Program Planning Important?  Social ecological view of health o Complex issues  Influenced by so many factors  Reciprocal determinism  Need to focus our attention on most important issues that have potential to change  Planning answers: o What factors are most important?  Which factors have the most influence o Which factors are more open to change?  Eg. Poverty  Hard to change based on resources  Planning will show that putting all resources into a problem that cannot be fixed at once is a waste o Precede proceed model  Helps find determinants and which ones to focus on o Using scarce health promotion resources  Planning helps use resources effectively  Not wasting resources on goals you cant reach o Planning sets up for evaluation  How will you measure the effectiveness  Eg. Counting how many people got flu shots if the goal was increase number of people who get the vaccine to prevent illness Doing Health Promotion  1. Assess Needs and Assets of the Population o What are needs for eating disorders?  Therapy? Counseling? o What is available now?  2. Asses Causes and set Objectives and Priorities o Societal level causes o Individual level causes  What will you focus on?  3. Design and Implement Program o Eg. Making campaigns  4. Evaluate Program o Look at the objectives of what you wanted to change  Did you change it? o Cannot just have 1 solution to 1 problem o Process of resolving, redefining and using different methods o There can be new needs o Go over multiple settings and go over multiple times  Process of reassessing and redesigning  Participatory Research o Used for assessing needs and assets of the population o Used for evaluating program  Work with the affected community  Find out their needs from their perspective  Ask them to evaluate if it was effective What is Program Planning  Achieving buy in and participation of stakeholders o Anyone who has a stake in the program o Who the program or issue affects o Anyone affected by the program  Getting permission of chief holder  Getting approval to make program  Developing a theory of the behaviour o Identifying the most important determinants  Writing goals and objectives o Goal are general o Objectives are specific  Specific statement of what you want to achieve  Planning program activities  Developing an evaluation plan  A non linear progress o Steps are not linear, but helps you think linear o Process goes back and forth How is Program Planning Done  Haphazardly o Randomly, no previous programs in place  PATCH o Planned Approach to Community Health  Using Precede Proceed model o Green and Kreuter  Various other methods Precede and Proceed Model  PRECEDE o Predisposing, reinforcing and enabling constructs in education/ ecological diagnosis and evaluation  Focus is on planning  PROCEED o Policy, regulator and organizational constructs in educational and environmental development  Focus is on implementation and evaluation  Proceeding with the intervention and evaluating it  Phases 1 – 4 (precede) o Moves from general to specific  Phases overlap  What can be achieved, what needs to be done to achieve it  What can be changed to achieve it o Phase 1  Social assessment of the quality of life of the population being studied o Phase 2  Epidemiological assessment  What determinants are affecting the environment  Genetics, behaviour, environmental factors  How is health affected by these factors  All these factors influence Quality of Life  Phases 5 – 8 (proceed) o Implementation o Process evaluation o Impact evaluation o Outcome evaluation Phase 1 – Social Assessment  Determining peoples perceptions  Understand their lives and all social factors that affect them o Social, historical, cultural factors  Being “culturally competetent”  Determining peoples own needs and quality of life from their perspective  Participation from population is key in understanding  Recognize relationship between health and social factors  Sometimes not always the first step o Other goals may be stated first and you are starting at a different position in the model  Methods of Social Assessment o Secondary data  What have other people collected?  Guides your own research o Using existing records  See what already exists o Literature o Primary data  Data collection  Collect yourself  Interviews, focus groups, survey, community forums  Involve community members o Participants  Community members  Opinion leaders  People who are looked up to in the community  Key informants  Someone who gives information about their community Phase 2 - Epidemiological Assessment  Purpose o Determining which problems are most important in a community o Identifying the determinants to those problems  Understanding the issue  Looking at behavioural and genetic determinants  2 approaches o Reductionist  Work on other issues first  May not be a health issue  Starting at social assessment o Expansionist  Expand on social determinants  Planner can conduct a secondary data analysis o Data that has been collected from others  Eg rates of disease, behavioural determinants
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