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Lecture 2

Social Ecological Approach, week 2.docx

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Queen's University
Health Studies
HLTH 323
Stevenson Fergus

Decrease in Rates of Smoking in Canada  Changes in policies o Eg cannot smoke in restaurants  More education o More knowledge on the harmful effects of smoking  Changed perceptions  Enforcement o Punishment deters smoking  Change in culture Social Ecological Approach  Think about all determinants o Health is influenced by a variety of factors  Factors that go beyond the individual  Individual and environmental factors interact o Reciprocal Determinism  Individual affects environment  Environment affects individual  Person environment fit is key o Everyone has different environment o People are predisposed to certain environments  You have to fit in a good environment  Community context may influence behaviour o Low economic status o Less access to resources  Proximal and Distal Environments – Interdependent o Proximal – close to you  Immediate surroundings o Distal environment  Outside of you  Immediate surroundings such as buildings and landscapes  Determine what is socially acceptable in local environments  Influences wider environments  Contributes to policy change  Interdisciplinary Approach is necessary o Policy, individual, physical, social Multiple Levels of Influence – Smallest to Largest  Individual o Individual behaviours are not always isolated o Influenced by factors from other levels  Dyad o Relationships between individuals and others  Eg child obesity and parent’s cooking  Group o Group dynamic affects individual behaviour  Eg. Being around people who like to drink  Organization o School, cafeteria o Limited options  Availability of resources from organizations affects individual behaviour and choices  Community o Community events, community involvement o Allocating resources  Eg. Not having enough gyms  Culture o Traditions affect behaviour o Can be passed down from generations  Problems and solutions are not all in the same level o Reciprocal Determinism  Each level affects every other level  Each level is affected by every other level Principles of Social Ecology  Person Environment Fit o Individuals and social and physical environments must be a suited match  Eg. Poor child in a wealthy school  Someo
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