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LING 501

PART 1  Once the Republicans return to the white house, Bush immediately surrounds himself with neoconservatives drawn directly from PNAC's founding members.  This explains why as soon as Bush assumes presidency, he is eager to put PNAC's worldview into action --- which is a conclusion stated by Ron Suskind, and supported by many others.  It's really important to understand that PNAC'S worldview encourages shaping the international security order in line with American principles and intand strives to launch the US as the new hegemonic leader of the international world  So Bush and his advisors sawHussein's ongoing regime in Iraq as the perfect example and ideal opportunity to put PNAC's plan into practice  But this was all established from the start, even before Bush's victory. Suskind quotes O'Neill in his work, stating that they were planning to take Hussein out and ultimately change Iraq into a new country because this would solve everything. It was all about finding a way to do it.  This leads us into the 9/11 attack where 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners and directed two of them into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York, causing them to collapse, killing almost 3000 innocent people. The third airliner smashed into the Pentagon while the fourth crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. This caused outrage among the American public, allowing Bush to declare a war on terrorism. Bin Laden and al-Qaeda gave Bush and PNAC "a way to do this" and as we will see, it basically gave them permission to turn on Iraq.  Less than a month after the attacks, the US assumes the leadership of a broad coalition of international forces that invades Afghanistan to remove the Taliban regime supporting al-Qaeda. Pakistan aligns itself with the US and provides military airports and bases for the attack on the Taliban. The United Islamic Front also joins the US-led coalition, which is also known as the Northern Alliance, and together they drive the Taliban into the southern regions of Afghanistan. But strangely enough, when the US could have easily stayed and finished off the Taliban, they choose not to, and instead they redirect their attention to Iraq  the US redirects its attention to Iraq, only because it is seen as ,and rather weak territory for the US forces to conquer and proveir military strength and power, withoutnecessarily being committed to a war that would cost American lives.  Of course now The Bush administration tries to pursue a number of ways to legitimately turn on Iraq --- starting with Bush's September 12, 2002 address to the UN Security Council. NATO allies reject the notion that an invasion of Iraq is justified and propose a UN inspection of Iraq for weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Yet despite this setback, the Bush administration secures joint resolution to "authorize the use of armed forces against Iraq"  The resolution was granted mainly due to the allegation US intelligence reports made stating the presence of WMDs in Iraq. (WMDs, the resolution notes, states a threat to the national security of the United States and international security and peace of the Persian Gulf region) Finally, on March 20, 2003, the US military launched operation Iraqi Freedom beginning a war that will last longer than World War II at enormous human cost. PART 2  Clausewitz's philosophy on war: War should remain an instrument in political negotiation, especially in the post-World War I era when humanity begins to unleash the full destructive potential of industrialized warfare.  The American decision to mislead the UN and initiate an unlawful war against Iraq destroys the multilateral unification of diplomacy and deterrence that had grown over the post-World War II period ---all in the pursuit of PNAC's particular ideology and self-interested objectives. Despite the fact that the invasion of Iraq, without the support of the UN security council, would be an illegal war, the Bush Administration still chose to proceed.  The UN serves as an international forum of negotiated settlements, and provides nation sta
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