LLCU 110 Lecture 15: Language & Ethnicity, Bilingualism, and codeswitching (week 8)

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Queen's University
Languages, Literatures and Cultures
LLCU 110
Bronwyn Bjorkman

Language and Ethnicity and Bilingualism Tuesday, March 7, 2017 1:11 PM What is standard English? Some standard factors: o Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary o Orthography: Spelling and punctuation o Prestige: Political, educational, class, etc. o Written (vs. spoken) o Formal (vs. informal) Standard English as an abstraction Standard English or Standard Englishes? Ethnolects in relation to standard varieties Ethnolect o An Ethnolect is a variety of a language associated with speakers of a particular ethnicity, independently of regional or other social factors In the Englishspeaking world, the standard is almost always in relation to white speech Ethnolects are not evaluated neutrally, but as departures from the white standard A wellstudied example: AAVE (African American Vernacular English) o Aka. Black American English (BAE) o Black Vernacular English (BE) o Ebonics A grammatical sketch of AAVE Some features in common with Southern American English Differences from other variety of American English in pronunciation o Vowels in find and found become ah ([aj] and [aw]> [a] o Final consonant clusters simplified (test> tess) o Nonrhotic (like British English: no rs at the end of words) And in grammar: o Zero past tense and thirdperson singular present o Negative concord (double negatives) o Amareis vs invariant be o Zero Copula o Aspectual system AAVE: Zero copula AAVE can drop amareis: He loud. You late o But only when Standard English allows contractions
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