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MICR 221 - Transposons%2C plasmids and conjugation.docx

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Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
MICR 221
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Transposons Plasmids and Conjugation DNAchromosome or genome o genes genotypeeach gene encodes a single protein or can also code for RNA o structural pili flagella cell wall o transportexport o signal transduction o enzymes catabolic and degradativeo RNA eg tRNA rRNA genome determines the nature and activities of the cell phenotype ie observable propertiesPhenotype is not constant because not all genes are being transcribed at the same time o Ex planktonic vs biolfilm state Genome is not constant additional sources of DNA DNA is not constant o plasmids o gene transfer from other bacteria Plasmidsextrachromosomal DNA molecules physically separate from the chromosomecarry genes usually not essential genes if cell loses plasmid it can still grow generally circular molecules rarely linearself replicating copy themselves independently from the chromosome o Own origin of replication independent of chromosomemuch smaller than chromosome 310 Kb vs 24 Mb for bacterial chromosomecharacteristic copy number often correlates with actual size of plasmid o low copy 12 per cell large plasmids usually o high copy number 30100 smaller plasmids Bacterial Plasmidssmall doublestranded usually circular DNA moleculesare repliconso have their own origin of replication o can exist as single copies or as multiple copiescuring o elimination of plasmid
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