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MUSC 102 (70)
Kip Pegley (24)

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MUSC 102
Kip Pegley

th 19 Century • Increase in nationalism o Different countries and regions had unique “sounds” • Two significant Austrian-German composers: Brahms and Mahler o Ex. Folk music with Brahms Brahms (born in Germany, 1833-1897) • Looked back at older forms (took older forms and re-invented them by using new harmonies & techniques) • Child prodigy • Often compared himself to Beethoven (pressured to match his works) • Traditional treatment of chords • Genres cultivated o Symphony (took 10 years to publish because he thought it wasn’t good enough) o Concerto o Wrote strictly absolute music o German folk music  Brahm’s Lullaby is an example of taking an older form and composing it as a symphony • Doubling 3 and 6 to help fill out orchestral (lush quality) 4th mvm’t of Symphony no. 4 in E- by Brahms (pg. 202 in textbook) • Passacaglia o Entire symphony built around it o A repeating 8-bar harmonic progression which changes slightly each time (variation) o ¾ time o Usually comes back in the base line • Two different forms happening at once o ABA’ (and coda) o Theme and variations • Duple pattern • Tremolo – string technique • 30 variations in total Gustav Mahler (1860-1911, Austria) • Looked forward to new forms • Modern-day Beethoven o Driven o strict • also pressured by legacy of Beethoven • career as composer AND conductor • wanted to become conductor at the Vienna Opera House, but since he was Jewish, anti- Semitism made this impossible • baptized himself and became Christian • moved to New York later in his life • wanted his music to be about “the whole world” (life, death, despair, etc) • very programmatic (opposite of Brahms) • excellent at combining traditional symphonic and traditional vocal forms o orchestral song cycle • “tradition is a mess” (disagreed Brahm’s philosophy) • Considered as the last of the major Romantic composers th 4 mvm’t from Symphony no. 2 in C- (“Ressurrection”) by Mahler (Pg. 209) • 5 movements • Large piece (90 minutes vs. 20-30 mins) • Quiet, stately, and many key changes • Highly Romantic (frequent mentions of God, life, death, re-incarnation) • Examples of word painting o 1:37  “I would rather to be in heaven” (line goes up) o 2:49  “came abroad a wide path” (Tempo increases) o 3:02  “I” (solo violin is heard) • Opening is a beautiful mellow voice, followed by brass chorale • Lied • orchestral and solo voice th 20 Century • industrialization o light bulbs, automobiles, etc. • war • Charles Darwin (creationism vs. evolutionism) o Existence perhaps not created by God • Sigmund Freud all of these contributed to anxiety and changes at the turn of the • Ideas of the unconscious
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