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MUSC 102
Kip Pegley

Week 7 Late Romanticism and Early Twentieth Century Listening: Brahms, Symphony No. 4 in E Minor (IV); Mahler, Symphony No 2 in C Minor “Resurrection,” IV “Urlight”; Debussy, Prelude toAfternoon of a Faun (on Moodle) Reading: Chapter 10, pp. 196 (from “the Nationalist Composers”) - 204 (up to “Giacomo Puccini”); pp. 207 (from “Gustav Mahler”) – 220 (up to “Primitivism”). Nationalism  Different nations have different associated sounds  Brahms  o  Brahms who looked back to earlier forms of music  o Mahler looked for new ways to make music o Germany 1833 ­1989, mid to end 19  century o Child prodigy, first piano recital at age of 10 o “burden or Beethoven” ▯ “step of a giant over my shoulder” o German composers were worried about writing symphonies bc Beethoven set the bar so  high o Concerto ( small groups vs orchestra), choir o Wants to make existing forms interesting with newer harmonies o wrote only absolute music o Nationalism ▯ looking towards folk forms of music in German, similar to the way Chopin  wrote mesurkas for polish Brahms lullabye  o Turning a folk tune into orchestra piece o A sense of him being German o Finding new ways to orchestrate o Doubling  ▯III and VI intervals ▯ more consonant, ‘fills out’ orchestra o Uses chords traditionally  Symphony No.4 o 4  movement▯ ntire symphony is built around 8 measure harmonic pattern of winds and  trombones  ▯  passacaglia   ▯  baroque, 8 measure idea that repeats o  each repetition changes every time it comes back unlike ground bass o ¾ time in the bass line o different forms  ▯variations of that idea, pure harmonic chord progressions into melodic  ideas o ABA’  ▯B has a new slower tempo and meter, A’ sounds similar to A but has a coda o Theme and Variations + ABA’  o Duple  ▯means in 2 o Tremolo  ▯string player moves the bow very quickly (shimmering) o Absolute o Went through every single variation in class!! o Very simple, chord progression repeats variations, grouped into sections Mahler:Life o (1860­1911) o modern day Beethoven, temperament, driven, knew himself well o becomes interested in traditional/folk music o wanted to see what he could do to move forms forward o also worried about living up to Beethoven o wanted to write more than 9 symphonies, used to be frowned upon o Vienna ▯ wanted to be director at opera house but was Jewish, not possible, becomes  catholic o Very strict and rigorous wasn’t well liked, went to the metropolital opera in NY, first  instance of a composer coming to north America ( people thought it would be less  discriminatory) o Last romantic era composer, the fate motif o Wanted to capture the whole world in his music o 2  symphony is about death and resurrection o very programmatic  ▯contrasts to Brahms love for absolute Orchestral song  o many songs that can all be preformed in an evening cycle o combines grandiose with miniature o a whole orchestra accompanies a vocalist  o “tradition is a mess” o wanted to try new forms to see what was possible o programmatic in some way` Symphony No.  o bigger orchestras 2 o nearly 90 mins long, 5 mins o spiritual journey from death to resurrection o Cminor ▯ cmajor o Blending of symphony and song o God and romanticism “ I am made by god and will return..” o Accompaniment gives words a new and profound meaning o 1:3
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