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Lecture 2

MUSC171 Week 2.docx

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MUSC 171

MUSC171 Week 2 History of recording - Thomas Edison and the Tinfoil cylinder, used it like a voice recorder, office machine - 1877 - he cranked it and produced a sound - ends up in the lab ofAlexander Graeham Bell, and he changed it by coating it in wax, was able to groove and cut into the wax, gave warmer sounds - Louis Glass, The father of the Juke box, didn’t call it a jukebox yet, - Ajuke joint was a place where good and upright citizens don’t go - This early jukebox, 5/6/7 people gathered around to listen to it, actually more like music - Emile Berliner with phonograph, had a round flat disc with a needle, and a cone, stamper pressed/fixed onto a rubber biscuit, and it becomes a record - Rubber, can get damaged easily, coated in shellac, harder and lasts longer, shellac record, can only hold about 3 minutes of music - Victor talking machine company, have to market to get it out to more people - “Little Nipper” bring animals into it to make it look/feel nicer, animal associated with anxiety producing technology - people started buying more phonographs because of the animals, more so in urban center, more expensive than cylinders, highly selected things recorded on it - don’t record womens’voices because it was too shrill, and more so band music/male voices - creates issues around copyright when buying and recording music - 1909, first Copyright act, to help protect the musicians - ASCAP,American society of composers authors and Publishers - Performing rights society, they make sure that if musicians went in and copyright whatever they produce and they get royalties when their music gets played - ASCAP still alive today, only signing certain type of musicians, very white dominating, more interested into “proper music” and music that upstanding people listened to - ASCAP not interested into “race music” (blues), or country - Tin PanAlley 1) An era, 1890s to 1950s (rock and roll comes in the 1950s and pretty much takes out Tin Pan Alley), was something that the whole “white” family would listen to. Rock and roll was like youth music and separated them from the parents 2) Street in NYC, coined this because there was a lot of upright pianos in this block, had music company buildings on top of one another, poorly tuned and poor instrument, had a “tin-y” sound 3) Part of music industry devoted to the production, promotion and sale of popular songs, records were expensive, and the idea was to make people buy sheet music, publishers/musicians then sell sheet music (Tin Pan Alley sheet music) and get into shows and peoples’homes, wanted to play it live and sing with it 4) Atype of song, written from 1890s to 1950s, compromised of sections of 32 or 16 bars of length, performed at home, and also in Vaudeville - Vaudevill, a variety show of different genres and things, mishmash of different types of groups that would entertain people, 1920s - Then turned into Broadway (1930s), but it’s different because Broadway has a story to it, has a theme linking it all together - 1800s, 45000 pianos manufactured and sold in the US - sheet music was the business - publishers hired song pluggers to get the music played - payola: gave money to play song - TPAhad publishing h
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