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PHAR 100 (175)


7 Pages

Pharmacology and Toxicology
Course Code
PHAR 100
Hisham Elbatarny

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Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects of the Central Nervous System Outline • Functions of the Nervous System • Divisions of the Nervous System • Central Nervous System • Neurotransmission • Parts of a neuron • Action potentials • Neurotransmitters in the CNS Nervous System Basic Functions of the Nervous System: 1. Recognize changes in the internal or external environment e.g. change in external temperature (28 C vs 0 C) 2. Process and Integrate the environmental changes are perceived e.g. body feels hot or cold 3. React: produce a response or an action to the environmental changes e.g. body will sweat or shiver Organization of the Nervous System front CNS: Brain and Spinal Cord back Brain: • Receives and processes information • Initiates a response • Stores memories • Generates thoughts and emotions Spinal Cord: Forebrain • Conducts signal to and from the brain • Controls reflex (automatic) activities e.g. breathing Midbrain Hindbrain CNS: Forebrain CNS: Brain • Cerebral Cortex (Cerebrum) ◦ Largest part of the brain ◦ Divided into two hemispheres: left and right ◦ Subdivided into 4 lobes: ▪ Occipital: Vision ▪ Temporal: Hearing ▪ Parietal: Sensory Perception ▪ Frontal: Higher-level cognitive functions Thalamus • Relay station for sensory and motor information to cerebral cortex Hypothalamus • Integration of the autonomic nervous system ◦ e.g. sleeping, body temperature • Controls hormonal output of the pituitary gland ◦ e.g. hormone releasing factors Pituitary gland • Hormone secretion CNS: Brainstem • connected to upper part of spinal cord • divided into three parts: midbrain, pons, medulla • all impulses between brain and spinal cord pass through brainstem • regulation of vital body functions ◦ e.g. blood pressure, heart rate, respiration • behavioural responses ◦ e.g. attention, arousal CNS: Cerebellum • connected to brainstem by large fibre tracts • integration of movement and posture • does not initiate movement, but organizes voluntary activity initiated elsewhere • alcohol: depresses cerebellum, causing loss of balance and co-ordination (drunkenness) The neuron • a nerve cell capable of generating and transmitting electrical signals • basic functional cell of the nervous system • other types are glial cells (provide metabolic and structural support) • many functions: ◦ analyze and transmit information ◦ receive sensory information from outside the body ◦ integrate and store information ◦ control muscle and gland activity • many shapes and sizes ◦ all have the same basic parts Three Main Parts of the Neuron Soma • cell body • largest part of the cell • includes the nucleus Dendrites • extend from the soma (cell body) at one end • divide into smaller and smaller branches • integrate signal from other neurons • direct the signal down the neuron Axon • extend from the soma (cell body) at the other end • divides into smaller branches • transmits signal away from cell body to other neurons • covered by the myelin sheath Signal Transmission • we know where the signal comes from and where it goes ◦ comes from dendrites ◦ leaves via the axons • but how does the signal pass from neuron to neuron? NEUTROTRANSMISSION Neurotransmission • as signal p
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