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PHAR 100 (172)


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Queen's University
Pharmacology and Toxicology
PHAR 100
Hisham Elbatarny

Drugs, Chemicals and Cancer Lecture Outline • cancer statistics • what is cancer? • causes of cancer Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality • incidence: the number of new cases of cancer diagnosed per year • prevalence: the number of cases of cancer existing in the population during the year • mortality: the number of deaths attributed to a particular type of cancer during the year Proportion of Deaths due to Cancer and Other Causes Canada, 2009 → Note: The total of all deaths in 2009 in Canada was 238,418 Current Trends (2013) (Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Cancer Statistics 2013) • estimated 187,600 new cases of cancer • estimated 75,500 deaths from cancer • lung cancer leading cause of cancer death • lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer are the most common types of cancer in Canada ◦ account for > 50% of all new cancer cases • primarily a disease that affects Canadians ≥ 50 Lifetime probability of developing cancer Lifetime probability of dying from cancer in Canada in Canada Estimated new cancer cases in Canada in 2013 Estimated cancer deaths in Canada in 2013 Relative survival ratios for the most common cancers Differences in Cancer Incidence between Countries • differences exist between major cancers affecting the developing versus developed countries ◦ detection methods ◦ reporting differences ◦ real differences ▪ exposures • occupational • diet Incidence of Liver Cancer in Men Worldwide • higher incidence in southeastAsia and centralAfrica ◦ Hep B infection ◦ contamination of foods by aflatoxin B1 Cancer • NOT a single disease • generic term for large # of diseases • characterised by long latent period between time of exposure and development of disease • all cancers share 3 key features: 1. Ability to proliferate indefinitely: uncontrolled cell growth and division 2 Ability to invade surrounding normal tissue: invasion 3. Ability to spread throughout the body: metastasis Carniogen • definition: a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue ◦ procarcinogen: a chemical substance that becomes a carcinogen only after it is altered by metabolic processes ◦ ultimate carcinogen: activated and chemically reactive form of a procarcinogen that is capable of causing cancer Carcinogenesis is a Multistep Process Causes of Cancer • genetics • environmental factors Gentic Predisposition • individual’s genetic makeup contributes to variation in response to carcinogens ◦ genetically based deficiency in DNArepair ▪ prone to mutations (e.g. Xeroderma pigmentosum →
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