Class Notes (836,128)
Canada (509,645)
PHAR 100 (175)
Lecture

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Department
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Course
PHAR 100
Professor
Hisham Elbatarny
Semester
Fall

Description
Food Additives Food Additives • Definition: substance added to food to improve appearance, texture, and storage of food. ◦ definition should include nutritive values as well. Classes of Additives • intentional – vitamins and minerals ◦ flavours ◦ colours ◦ preservatives ◦ texture agents • unintentional – during processing ◦ fertilizers ◦ pesticides ◦ heavy metals ◦ rodent hairs etc ◦ microorganisms • Adulterants ◦ melamine General Comments • Additives are convenience substances ◦ safety criteria must be rigid ◦ efficacy easily shown but not toxicity ◦ exposure for a life time • Limitations ◦ no toxicity at low concentrations ◦ risk assessment in animals to humans over a life time ◦ carcinogenic or mutagenic? WHO – World Health Organization • additives are justified if they enhance quality or acceptability of food. • only in quantities to meet stated aims • additives should be pure • known toxicology • consideration should be given to special groups ◦ special diets, or over use one type of food Regulations • set limits for the use of intended additions ◦ based on the intended use and toxicity in animals = safety factor ◦ GRAS status • set Limits for contaminants added during production or manufacturing ◦ ex: Substances used in raising chickens and cattle • set limits for all contaminants eg heavy metals Classes of Additives Flavouring Agents • spices, essence of smoke, synthetic flavours • pose a potential risk – most not evaluated • 4-5 K most not studied • most probably free of toxicities • includes MSG – causes a tightening of muscles of head and neck, headache, nausea and giddiness • large explosion of these additives Colours • colouring agents are organic dyes • most are well evaluated but never sure of carcinogenic potential • used in small amounts but have greatest potential for toxicity ◦ some have been removed after careful evaluation • coal tar derivatives? not necessarily toxic. • used to improve appearance. • some dyes used in US or Europe not approved in Canada – Red Dye No 2 • allergic reactions to Tartrazine – yellow colouring Texture Agents • impart a pleasing texture ◦ ilicates to keep flour free flowing ◦ thickening agents (agar) ◦ may constitute up to 3% of the product ◦ little known toxicity ◦ Milk Shakes?? Preservatives • prese
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