Class Notes (836,128)
Canada (509,645)
PHAR 100 (175)


4 Pages
Unlock Document

Pharmacology and Toxicology
PHAR 100
Hisham Elbatarny

Food Additives Food Additives • Definition: substance added to food to improve appearance, texture, and storage of food. ◦ definition should include nutritive values as well. Classes of Additives • intentional – vitamins and minerals ◦ flavours ◦ colours ◦ preservatives ◦ texture agents • unintentional – during processing ◦ fertilizers ◦ pesticides ◦ heavy metals ◦ rodent hairs etc ◦ microorganisms • Adulterants ◦ melamine General Comments • Additives are convenience substances ◦ safety criteria must be rigid ◦ efficacy easily shown but not toxicity ◦ exposure for a life time • Limitations ◦ no toxicity at low concentrations ◦ risk assessment in animals to humans over a life time ◦ carcinogenic or mutagenic? WHO – World Health Organization • additives are justified if they enhance quality or acceptability of food. • only in quantities to meet stated aims • additives should be pure • known toxicology • consideration should be given to special groups ◦ special diets, or over use one type of food Regulations • set limits for the use of intended additions ◦ based on the intended use and toxicity in animals = safety factor ◦ GRAS status • set Limits for contaminants added during production or manufacturing ◦ ex: Substances used in raising chickens and cattle • set limits for all contaminants eg heavy metals Classes of Additives Flavouring Agents • spices, essence of smoke, synthetic flavours • pose a potential risk – most not evaluated • 4-5 K most not studied • most probably free of toxicities • includes MSG – causes a tightening of muscles of head and neck, headache, nausea and giddiness • large explosion of these additives Colours • colouring agents are organic dyes • most are well evaluated but never sure of carcinogenic potential • used in small amounts but have greatest potential for toxicity ◦ some have been removed after careful evaluation • coal tar derivatives? not necessarily toxic. • used to improve appearance. • some dyes used in US or Europe not approved in Canada – Red Dye No 2 • allergic reactions to Tartrazine – yellow colouring Texture Agents • impart a pleasing texture ◦ ilicates to keep flour free flowing ◦ thickening agents (agar) ◦ may constitute up to 3% of the product ◦ little known toxicity ◦ Milk Shakes?? Preservatives • prese
More Less

Related notes for PHAR 100

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.