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PHAR 100 (175)
Lecture

28drugsinsports.pdf

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Department
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Course
PHAR 100
Professor
Hisham Elbatarny
Semester
Fall

Description
Drugs Used in Sports General Comments • widely used to enhance strength and performance • banned by all levels of sports organizations Main Drugs • Reduce pain and inflammation ◦ Local anesthetics ◦ Narcotics ◦ Corticosteroids • Increase endurance and speed ◦ Amphetamines ◦ Blood agents • Increase strength ◦ Anabolic steroids • Alter heart rate ◦ Propranolol • Reduce body weight ◦ Diuretics • Tranquillizers ◦ Diazepam History • Ancient Greeks used stimulants • Aztecs ate the heart of human sacrifice • Belgian racers used sugar cubes dipped in ether • Early 1900’s boxers used brandy and cocaine • Strychnine used in long distance racing. • Modern era started with anabolic steroids in1950’s Extent of Use • Drug use has been (is?) epidemic • Anabolic steroid use in 1972 ◦ Weight lifters: 80-90% (NCAA); 100% (Olympics) ◦ Body builders:100% ◦ Pro-football: 75% 1980 – Drugs used by one NFL Team/Game • Pain meds: 12-14 tablets per player • Sleeping meds: 6-9 tablets per player • Amphetamines: 60-70 mg per player Most Abused Historically • Amphetamines • Anabolic steroids Current Usage • Data difficult to obtain • Steroid use in 1990’s (males) ◦ 4-12% in high school ◦ 14% in NCAA ◦ 30-75% in pro-athletes • more recent survey – 10% of high school students have taken steroids – improve image • 250, 000 to 500, 000 to improve body shape. Current Status • Steroid use may be as high as 20% • In high school: males 6%, females 2-3% • 50% of males over 27 years have used anabolic steroids. (Seems high) • Cycling Terms • masking: taking a naturally-occurring compound which is excreted with the drug. • stacking: multiple drugs taken: excreted independently thus can be taken in smaller amounts – not detected • pyramiding: building up the dose and tapering off – so drug free at time of competition • doping: use of performance-enhancing agents. • doping control ◦ measure drug in urine. ◦ relate to endogenous factors, e.g. change in normal hormone levels with anabolic steroid use Amphetamines • performance on exercise bicycle • exercise on bike after1 hour revolutions start to diminish: give amphetamine can work at same number of revs as at the start of the work out Swimming • 100-metre freestyle ◦ placebo 57.47, Amphetamine 56.87 (1.04%) • Butterfly ◦ placebo 70.96, Amphetamine 69.36 (2.25%) • doses were modest. Running • Bannister world record in 1954 (< 4 min) for the mile. • Six title holders until 1975 all < 1 sec apart ◦ Consider the effect of amphetamines? • Amphetamines will improve performance ◦ especially if competitive • Toxicities ◦ Increase heart rate and blood pressure ▪ Can be serious or fatal. ◦ Central nervous system excitation Designer Amphetamines • Modafinil ◦ Amphetamine-like response ◦ Less jitteriness ◦ Appeared in 2003 U.S. Olympic trials Anabolic Steroids • Used in football, weight lifting, wrestling running – heavy sports • Also in precision sports – gymnastics • Other issue to consider – for muscle development, need amino acids, high protein diet Endrocrinology • Androgenic response ◦ Secondary sex characteristics • Anabolic response ◦ Promote growth and muscle development • Anabolic steroids • Some separation between androgenic and anabolic response, not complete ◦ Nandrolone decanoate Inj. ◦ Stanozolol ◦ Developed to promote anabolism in disease states Effective? • Trials in males ◦ 25 clinical trials were reviewed ▪ Muscle strength ▪ Oxygen consumption ▪ Used protein supplements ◦ Results Hard to fund research on illegal drugs ▪ No change 13 ▪
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