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Canada (510,272)
PHAR 100 (175)
Bill Racz (60)
Lecture

Lesson A.1 Notes.docx
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Department
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Course
PHAR 100
Professor
Bill Racz
Semester
Winter

Description
Lesson A.1 – The History of Drug Use and Development Drugs and Religion: • medicine men acted as both physician and priest. As a result, therapy was heavily influenced by religion and magic • in most parts of the world, plants were found contained intoxicating substances that altered the state of consciousness in order to facilitate communication with their Gods. • In Mexico, Psilocybe mushroom contains psilocybin and psilocin • In North America, Peyote cactus was widely used. It contained mescaline, which causes hallucinations, a feeling of well-being and distorts perception Drugs and Poisons: • The idea of medications originated from a study of poisons • According to Swiss physician Paracelsus, dosage is what differentiates a poison from a remedy West and Central Africa – Ordeal Trials: • Trials held in West and Central Africa and Madagascar • Purpose of these trials were to identify sorcerers • Tribe members were given a poison by the healer. Those who vomited were saved, while those who did not were proclaimed a sorcerer and died • Some modern drugs were derived from these crude poisons (ex. physostigmine from the Calabar bean is used to treat glaucoma) The Amazon – Poison Arrows: • Amazon natives dipped their arrows into Curare, a poison that acted upon the voluntary muscles of animals causing paralysis and death o Normally acetylcholine is released by nerves which effect skeletal muscles. By combining with receptors in skeletal muscle, causing contraction o However the curare combines with the receptors instead, therefore preventing muscle contraction o Today, small amounts of modified curare would be used by anesthesiologists Ergot – Fungus on Rye: • Fungus which grows on ears of rye Lesson A.1 – The History of Drug Use and Development • Prone during wet seasons • In the middle ages, rye and ergot were ground up together and made its way into bread, resulting terrible epidemics • Symptoms include: o 1) burning of limbs – “Holy Fire” or “St. Anthony’s Fire” o 2) constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstrictor) – limbs eventually died/fell off o 3) hallucinations, convulsions and mental frenzy – LSD is based on ergot alkaloids o 4) abortion – causes violent contractions in uterus. In modern day, ergotamine (migrane treatment) and ergonovine (no longer to hasten labour, instead used to arrest bleeding after childbirth) developed Drugs and Ancient Civilizations Early Chinese Medicine: • Earliest drug experiments originated in China, in 2700 B.C. • Ma Huang/Ephedra was classified as a medium drug (treats coughs, flu and fever). Ephedrine was isolated from it in modern day (treats asthma and other conditions) Early Egyptian Medicine: • Influence of religion is illustrated by a vessel shaped like a mother holding a child o Dates back from 1400 B.C. o Designed to hold the mother’s milk who had given birth to a healthy child o An incantation was said over the milk. Then the milk was used to remedy sick children th • In 19 century, a number of papyri (documents) were discovered o A papyrus discovered by Ebers, hence named “Ebers Papyrus,” was a textbook of drug use for medical students o Contained many true observations of drugs, especially on purgatives (cause bowel movements) o Some drugs recommended for use were castor oil, figs, and senna (senna products are used today) Lesson A.1 – The History of Drug Use and Development Early Greek Medicine: • In 380 B.C. a textbook was written which included opium, from the opium poppy. o Poppy bulb slashed and fluid that emerges is dried and constitutes an opium o Seturner is the constitute in opium responsible for pain relief o Opium contains ~10% morphine (intense pain reliever and treats anxiety) and 5% codeine (pain relief and constitute of Tylenol 1) Spain, Persia (Iran), and Mesopotamia (Iraq): • In 10 and 11 century, great medical schools were found in Islamic cities in Spain, Persia and Mesopotamia • During this time, the plant Colchicum was introduced for gout (joint pains and swelling) • In modern day, Colchicine has been extracted and is still used for gout treatment Drug Discovery – 18 , 19 , and 20 century • Digitalis o Introduced into medicine in 1785 by William Withering (physician and botanist) o Water extract is given to patients o Extremely helpful for those with certain forms of heart disease (strengthens heart muscles to expel blood with force) o In modern day, major pure component, digoxin, is used for same issues and for disordered rhythms of the heart • Nitroglycerin o Explosive material used in the manufacture of dynamite is valuable for treating the disease Angina pectoris (choking in the chest; pains due to insufficient oxygen available to heart muscle) o Nitroglycerin increased supply of oxyg
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