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PHIL 115
Jacqueline Davies

PHILOSOPHY SECOND SEMESTER- notes on John Dewey feb 11 john dewey 1859-1952 dewey known as the replacement child because he was born nine months and 3 days after his brother john dewey died if you wanted to study philosophy in a secular setting you had to go to europe, dewey decided to go but he couldnt afford it, was accepted to john hopkins but without funding. dewey believed that there was something special about scientific knowledge. he said it could carry over into other branches of investigation including philosophy wanted to pass laws to ban war -just general notes but get them from kieran/morgan/shannon. • John Dewey, 1859-1952 One of the most prolific philosophers ever. His complete works are composed of 38 thick volumes and the last one was actually lost. • Born in burlington Vermont. Father was a remote parent and mother was very intensely involved in his life. Mother was devoutly religious (Christian). A very big factor in Dewey's upbringing which led to a very dim vie of introspection. His father was a very hard working grocer. • Dewey was a replacement child: The first John Dewey died at the age of two and this John Dewey was born exactly nine months and two days later. Dewey grew up very conscious of the fact that he was a replacement child and he worked twice are hard feeling that he had to live two lives. • Was especially interested in the organic nature of any living thing, in particular the human mind. Finished his B.A. And did not know what he wanted to do so he became a high school teacher. Alice Chipman and John Dewey were married for 40+ years and had and adopted many children. Had 8 children. • Dewey did not want to study philosophy in a religious institution. Could not afford to go to Europe so he applied to John Hopkins University. Got accepted after his third application. • Adamantly opposed to Marxism. Held out hope for pragmatism like James outlines. He never believed that philosophy is or should aspire to become a science, but believed that intellectual inquiry is the same in every field; science, math, etc. • Dewey lived through both world wars. Was opposed to American involvement in both wars in the beginning but gradually changed his mind as the war unfolded. Was a prominent member of the Outlawry of War Movement; wanted to make war illegal. Was a very sharp critic of the Soviet Union before it was even politically popular to be so. Was a lifelong advocate, theorist of democracy but was not happy with the state of American democracy. • He had a cottage in a place called Hubbards Nova Scotia, just left of Halifax Nova Scotia. • He did know John Watson. The same John Watson that the hall across the street is named after. • Dewey was the most philosophically sophisticated thinker in what became known as the The Progressive Education Movement. By the 1930s was a very strong critic of the movement. • Dewey and his second wife adopted 2 children. His second wife was thoroughly disliked by everybody except John Dewey. She was younger than some of his grown children from his first marriage. • Wants to defend James from his critics. He wants to clarify and refine this pragmatic philosophy. Dewey thinks the basic idea of a pragmatic idea of truth is correct but it needs to be refined more. The notion of knowledge is still very much the centre of philosophy. • Dewey thinks that philosophers have a habit of inflating the difference between what is in you mind and what is actually in the world “out there”. Dewey will say that it makes as much sense to say that the world is in your mind than it is to say that it is out there. The whole distinction between in here and out there. Dewey was reading Darwin and agreed with him in a time where it was very controversial. • Mind is immediately connected to the world. There is no radical separation of mind of world and object and knowledge. Descartes said that we needed to go on a quest for certainty, and Dewey says that we need to abandon that. We should seek out knowledge yes but certainty no. • Scientific methodology or inquiry is going to be what fits knowledge in general.Never took the view that philosophy is a science or should be a science. Inquiry does apply to many subjects. • Thinking or inquiry are not one way streets where knowers go out into the world and grasp its object. Knowing is a two way street. • Thinking begins with problematic situation. All lines inquiry in any discipline begins with an experience of a problematic situation. All inquiry takes the form of problem solving, in every discipline.Thinking is problem solving; trial and error problem solving. • Most of the problematic situations that get things started spur form experience. Knowledge is not something separate for self. Knowledge belong to any living organism or the human organism. Knowledge is an activity that applies to the organism and we cannot forget that. feb 12 • Dewey is trying to defend James. Similar relationship to John Stewart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. • Dewey introduces the term warranted assertibilty- meaning truth. The object of knowledge is truth. Truth is a name for statements or ideas or hypotheses if it is warranted, that is if we can provide a justification for it. Assertibility- what is sayable. What you can reasonable claim and back up with a rational argument. This entails that truth is always contingent on the course of future inquiry. For Dewey probably nothing is true for all time. Very little of our truth is true for all time. Dewey is going to say that you can never really say that something is true period. Truth is on probation. It is true in that it passes for true and works in our experience and generates consensus but its truth is on probation. Someone may come up with a better idea in the future. • He is strongly influenced by Darwinian theology. We have to say that everything about the human mind, knowledge and the truth itself, as standing to the world in a naturalistic kind of way. The relationship between mind and world is much like the relationship between any other individual and the world. • We want to be able to speak of knowledge in a fluid way. We need to understand the relationship of mind and world in a kind of organic model. • Dewey is going to say that the solution has to fit the problem. Dewey is going to say that you cannot take a solution or hypothesis that does not fit one problem and say that it may fits a different problem or situation. • A solution has got to fit the problem, not a different problem. According to James an idea is not true until generates consensus among a group of competent individuals. • All human experience even the most elementary of perceiving a pen language colour or structures our perceptions. When this book was published the theme of language was not that big or popular (1920). The standard view in philosophy had been that experience is pre linguistic ir non linguistic. An idea is had in the first place and then and idea or sense impression is put into words. Language had traditionally been regarded as an afterthought to our experience. Dewey says that language is present in the human being right from the beginning. I have an experience of a thing when I can speak about it to classify it. The most elementary act of experience requires language. • Consensus is not a guarantee that we have hit upon or discovered the truth. There are not guarantees or certainties in knowledge. Consensus among a group of scholars is one criterion for truth. It is not a guarantee. • NO knowledge is certain. There is knowledge but we have to redefine knowledge in a more finite way. Reason and experience are very separate. Reason is above experience and theory is above practice. Very hierarchical. • There is a tendency in the rationalist way of thinking to get lost on the world of concepts. Dewey is going to say that you cannot separate reason from experience. You reason about experience. He is going to say that if you turn your back on the world and only consider concepts you cannot apply yourself to real world problems. Do not dwell in the region of abstractions. Philosophy must be worldly and pragmatic. It helps us to understand the world in which we live and the problems we face. We want the pursuit of knowledge and the end of knowledge as truth, warranted assertibility. Hypothesis that have been shown to be certified or warranted. • What is intelligence? Experimental intelligence. Reason for Dewey is the social practice or reasoning! Principles are not dogmas they are hypotheses to be worked out in practice. • He is a process philosopher. Wants to study things as dynamic and fluid, Intelligence is flexible. Intelligence is a constant process of forming and fluidity. • It is dangerous when the mindset of the thinker is removed from everyday objects and experience. Hume and other British empiricist stated the seriousness or consideration receives impression sofje basic bloth of (I don't know what I was trying to say here) • James' radical empiricism shapes Dewey's theory biography. feb 14 • The long essay: 2,000 – 2,500 words, maybe go 10% longer than 2,500 words. Eliminate anything extraneous from your paper. The difference between a good argument and a mediocre one is depth and detail. Philosophers don' think in points. Not looking for points but for depth instead. Don't quote lectures or professor Fairfield. • Up to you weather you engage in critique or not. If you do engage in critical argumentation. Don't cut it short. Give it about the last third of the essay. If you do critique only give one. You may have additional sources if you choose. No internet research. You need to not rely on other people's interpretations. • Dewey is trying to develop a model that explains many fundamental philosophical concepts. The world does not just impress itself upon me, my mind, or my consciousness. The mind is much more active than we commonly believe. Experience is a continuous process. We do not just suffer or passively undergo sense impression. We active transform our environment to live. Reason is not a faculty of mind that is above the empirical or sense experience. Reason is bound up with and inseparable from human experience or “experimental intelligence” (?). The mind does not just sit there and passively take in ideas about the world. “we use past experience to construct new or better ones in the future” -Dewey. Any experience that is worth having is a learning experience. We should stop thinking of reason as reigning down on experience. We reason about all that there is and all that there is is objects of experience. We can reason about any experience but reason is not above or separate and apart from experience. There is already and experimental, ration element in human experience. In our experience we have to do something with the object. Assess it in some intelligent way. A scientist of philosopher does not stare passively at an object waiting for the truth to press itself upon the mind. The proper function of theory is only to enhance our practices. Theorizing begins with our practices to solve practical problems. The point of reasoning is to solve pragmatic situations within our experiences. Forms are just abstractions. Ideas in mind and thats it. Dewey is going to say that we have this idea that the philosopher is someone who lives among the clouds in pure reason (comes from ancient Greek philosophy). Dewey wants to say that that is exactly what philosophy should not be. A philosopher to try to solve really problems. Dewy held J.S Mill in pretty high regard because Mill was not trying to grasp forms, he was trying to solve political problems and figure out how the common good could be realized. He tried to solve real social ills. The point of political theory is to solve real political problems. Goal is to solve real problems that arise out of ordinary human experience. James had started to describe experience as dynamic interaction but Dewey wants to take this further. One stage of learning creates the conditions that will lead to further stages of growth. Growth is important to his conception of experience. Experience grows. The point of education it to grow the mind of the student. The process of learning is to grow the intellectual capacities of the student. • What does it mean to say that one person is experience while another has not. Being experienced means that one is open to more experience and that one knows what to do when faced with new experiences. Ou
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