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PHIL 115

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Week 9 12/03/2013 07:28:00 Nietzsche‟s epistemology  Nietzsche has no theory of it, however, we have to regard thought as a personal expression: the will to power.  Philosophy is a discipline, ideas a personal psychology; an expression of the person.  Ideas stand for their author in the same way art does for artists.  To Descartes, I can be any rational being but not the physical person.  Philosophy is a surreal thing to him.  Nietzsche argues that empiricists and pragmatists have the same view to some extent.  “Philosophy is the personal confession of its author.”  No such thing as pure objectivity. Even math isn‟t completely impersonal.  If it is true that philosophy is personal, all knowledge is interpretation.  Nothing is true in itself. All truth is contingent upon the speaker, the interests of the speaker.  Moral knowledge serves us just as much as science. Perspectivism  Knowledge is uncertain, contingent, and reliant on the perspective of the person.  This is Nietzsche‟s epistemological hypothesis.  We can only know the particular aspect, which a particular point of view allows.  Whole truths are not possible.  E.g.: looking at a watch, we can claim to know certain things from our perspective but nothing else. Points of view change our conception of something completely. This means knowledge can never be whole.  Perspective at the same time makes knowledge possible but also limits it.  Truth, like a woman must be observed again and again, from as many perspectives as possible. There is no such thing as god-like omniscience.  Why do we still continue to write about Rome if we know it all?  Nietzsche: we don‟t. We can never know everything about anything.  Our point of view of a historian will be different than any other historian in the past. Knowledge is always changing according to point of ivew.  Everyone brings their own baggage when reading something.  To best know something, you must observe it from as many perspectives as possible.  E.g.: the more light we bear on an object, the easier we can see it.  The more POV‟s come to bear on something, the more aspects we can ascertain. ^This is Nietzsche‟s theory of knowledge.  Different disciplines (bio and psych) share a perspective of something just like two different lights do to an item. Nietzsche on Religion  Not only rejected all of it, but did so passionately.  Human existence needs a justification. This is an urgent matter.  Too often we turn to religion to answer it. It is counterintuitive because it blocks us from answering the question earnestly.  “For as soon as I believe in a god, all the good things in life, become a gift from God. Leaving the believer as the originator of sin – immoral action and nothing else.  Religious worldviews debase human existence.  Churches are constructed to inspire your obedience to God. Imagine Nietzsche argues if we took all the time and effort we place in God and the afterlife and placed it in reality and live in the present. Our lives and human progress would be much m
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