PHIL 115 Lecture Notes - Deontological Ethics, Political Philosophy, Foundationalism

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 115
Professor
Philosophy Lecture
January 10, 2013
Foundationalism
Liberalism
Utilitarianism
T.Hobbes. 1588-1679
J. Locke, 1632-1704
J.J. Rousseau, 1712-1778
I. Kant, 1724-1804
J.S. Mill, 1806-1873
-Mill replies to Kant’s moral philosophy with his ethical theory utilitarianism.
-utilitarianism appears as a moral theory which is an alternative to deontology
UTILITARIANISM: what matters is the consequences of our actions, not the intent of
them.
How do we know if the consequences of the action are good or bad?
“The greatest happiness of the greatest number”
-an action is morally good if the consequences entail the “largest net happiness” or
“greatest net utility”
-minimize suffering and maximize happiness
-utilitarian ethics should be applied to politics to create the most successful form of
government
-utilitarianism produces a LIBERAL government
Liberalism as a political philosophy:
-not specific to one philosopher
-does not necessarily imply that it’s philosophers are “liberal”
-direct response to early modern absolutism
-the role of government is not to redesign human nature instead, build society
around human nature as it is
-it is a concept that has developed and changed over centuries
-holds different meaning today than it did in the past
Core Principles
-state neutrality regarding “the good” state should be neutral on the question of
what the good life is: “The state has no business in the bedrooms of the people”
Trudeau
-separation of the church and state
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Document Summary

Mill replies to kant"s moral philosophy with his ethical theory utilitarianism. Utilitarianism appears as a moral theory which is an alternative to deontology. Utilitarianism: what matters is the consequences of our actions, not the intent of them. An action is morally good if the consequences entail the largest net happiness or. Utilitarian ethics should be applied to politics to create the most successful form of government. Does not necessarily imply that it"s philosophers are liberal . The role of government is not to redesign human nature instead, build society around human nature as it is. It is a concept that has developed and changed over centuries. Holds different meaning today than it did in the past. State neutrality regarding the good state should be neutral on the question of what the good life is: the state has no business in the bedrooms of the people .

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