PHGY 210 Lecture Notes - Dorsal Root Of Spinal Nerve, Motor Unit, Cardiac Muscle

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31 Jan 2013
The muscles in the body can be described according to two broad categories:
o Lines the digestive tract, arteries and related structures
o Innervated by nerve fibers from the ANS
o Plays a role in peristalsis and the control of blood pressure and blood flow
Striated there are two types of striated muscles
o Cardiac muscle
is the heart muscle
contracts rhythmically
innervations of the heart from the ANS functions to accelerate or slow
down the heart rate
o Skeletal muscle
Constitutes the bulk of muscle mass in the body
Functions to move bones around joints
Is enclosed in a connective tissue sheath that forms tendons
Contains hundreds of muscle fibers, each innervated by a single axon
branch from the CNS (see Fig. 13.3)
Derived from 33 paired somites
Controlled by the somatic motor system
Under voluntary control and it generates behaviour
Consider elbow joint (see Fig. 13.2)
Movement in the direction that closes the knife is called flexion
o The muscles that cause flexion are called flexors. Because they work together,
they are called synergists.
Movement in the direction that opens the knife is called extension
o The muscles that cause extension are called extensors.
Flexors and extensors pull on a joint in opposite directions and are antagonists.
Muscles that are responsible for movements:
of the trunk are called axial muscles
o important for maintaining posture
of the shoulder, elbow, pelvis, and knee are called the proximal muscles
o important for locomotion
of the hands, feet, and digits are called the distal muscles
o important for specialized manipulation of objects
Somatic musculature is innervated by the somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn of the
spinal cord (see Fig. 13.3).
These cells are sometimes called lower motor neurons to distinguish them from the
upper motor neurons of the brain that supply input to the spinal cord.
Only the lower motor neurons directly command muscle contraction.
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