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Political Science 110-Class Notes First Semester

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Department
Political Studies
Course
POLS 110
Professor
Jonathan W Rose
Semester
Fall

Description
Christian Karayannides Political Science Political Science (In Class Notes) Sept.11.2012  What is Politics?  “Man by nature is a political animal”-Aristotle  It is only in the area of politics where we see formal equality (one person, 1 vote, 1 weight), is only really applied in the electoral arena What is “by nature”?  Nature vs. nurture debate  Is it about their genetics or is it about the environment  We are a product of the environment we grow up in  We don’t think about responses in our body (breathing), by nature we behave in certain ways, Aristotle says politics are as fundamental to who we are as the above What is political?  For most people politics is about elections  Everything else however is really the substance  Elections are merely a think venire What is animal?  Social creatures, they adapt, thrive, grow and ORGANIC  Politics is something that has all those qualities but is also instinctual to who we are John Connolly-“concepts in politics are essentially contested?”  Concepts around politics are the substance of politics  Politics is the study of the state  State (government, legislature, court)=they set rules for society, establishes rules for all of society, establishes the appropriate sphere for the individual  Whether this matter is individual or shared  The state should not regulate the right to bear arms (US militia)  Usually is a positive argument (right to healthcare Canada)  The state is their to protect us  We have a right for privacy but the state will also protect you if there is any potential threats to your security  Where did the state get this right? Appropriate or legitimate?  Society makes a distinction between the public and the private  5 US states recognize same sex marriage  Should the state have a role in marriage equality? Should the State get involved/intervene?  Depends on the situation and to what extent  How many people it is affecting  In what are they intervening (land, labor, capital)  Capitalism will determine the appropriate benefit to society  They should intervene in situations where radical outcomes are possible  What would happen in the absence of regulation? Christian Karayannides Political Science  SELF-REGULATION-counterfactuals where it works  In the absence of regulation people are asked to regulate themselves Sept.13.2012  What assumptions do you make about civil society, the power of the state and its capacity? (RE: Should the state intervene?)  Issues about capacity  Should the state be about the protections of citizens, property?  What is politics? (Part 2)  Examine different ways to understand politics  Examine different ways to study politics  Explore concepts, facts, values  Politics as the art of Government  State centered view  Politics is what the governments do  State is the apparatus of government  (The most narrow definition of politics)  Ignores the broader idea of what really is political  Politics as a method  “Means of resolving scarce resources”-Lasswell  The art of the possible is based on the debate and deliberation  Who gets what where and why  Politics as a means (for examining and resolving issues, problems, differences)  Satisfying as many concerns as possible  Utilitarianism-greatest good for the greatest number  Implemented to satisfy the greatest number of people  Politics as Power  “Politics is the heart of all collective activity, formal and informal, public and private, in all human groups, institutions, and societies.”-Adrian Leftwich  Politics is everywhere  Broadest conception  Power as a hierarchy, but it should be understood as a network  Power in different aspects of our lives, none of us are powerless, however we all have different degrees of power depending on the circumstances Christian Karayannides Political Science Sept.17.2012 Approaches to Studying Politics Philosophical tradition-based in normative reasoning (always interested in assumptions when thinking about the philosophical tradition)  Normative questions  Normative reasoning-what should be done. Takes of the objective the ideal.  Politics is a social science  Tools of politics=media, stats/polls, moral view, deductively and inductively  What is the good life has dominated the study of politics (what do we mean by a good life? All different)  Should it be based on what is practical or what is the ideal Empirical tradition-experience is the basis of knowledge  Voting studies are examples of empirical analysis  The two can contrast each other many times  Based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic  Voting studies are an example of this  Same sex marriage-normative reasoning vs. empirical tradition Scientific Tradition-universal laws that govern politics?  Lead more to description then prescription  1. The Philosophical Approach:  The philosophical approach concentrates on the values which a political system should set for itself. It emphasises that a political system should be based upon certain ideals and that it should strive to give shape to them.  Plato, the Greek philosopher, represented best this philosophical tradition of politics. He said that it was the duty of the philosopher-king to establish the ideal society based on justice. In the medieval period, this tradition was continued by Augustine and Aquinas.  The philosophical approach is also known as the traditional approach. It involves an analytical study of ideas and doctrines which have long formed the core part of political thought. However, this approach has been criticized on the ground that it cannot be scientific as it ignores objective reality.  2. The Empirical Approach:  The empirical approach stresses on 'experience' or ground reality in the study of politics. Though this approach took a systematic theoretical shape in the 17th century as a result of the influence of John Locke and David Hume, this approach is almost as old as the philosophical approach.  The first practitioner of this approach was Aristotle who studied a large number of constitutions in order to prepare a classification of constitutions. Machiavelli's 'Prince' which is an objective account of statecraft and Montesquieu sociological theory of government and law belong to this empirical tradition.  Behaviouralism in politics has been a product of the empirical tradition. It focuses Christian Karayannides Political Science on the study of political behaviour.  The philosophical approach is normative; it is based on values and norms. On the contrary, the empirical approach is based on ground reality. Further, the philosophical approach is prescriptive, because it makes judgments and makes recommendations. But the empirical approach is descriptive because it tries to objectively study politics without any bias and prejudice.  3. The Scientific Approach:  Karl Marx has been hailed as the first to have described politics in scientific terms. Through his 'materialistic interpretation of history,' he developed some 'Laws' which helped him predict the future. Those who sought to make the study of politics scientific argued that hypotheses could be verified on the basis of objective quantifiable data.  In 1950s and 1960s the study of politics assumed a new form called "behaviouralism" or "behavioural persuasion in politics". This doctrine, marking the theoretical development of the scientific tradition of the study of politics, made a big impact. But before long it faced criticism and challenge.  In 1970 a group of scholars argued that "behaviouralism narrowed down the scope of Political Science and undermined its quality by ignoring the value or values and norms in the study of politics. They stood for going back to political values and norms without discarding the scientific method of collecting and processing data. This new phase in the study of politics has been known as post- behaviouralism. The writings of John Rawls and Robert Nozick reflect this trend.  http://www.preservearticles.com/2011100414560/what-are-the-different- approaches-for-studying-politics.html Prescription vs. Description What is a prescription-what is or what ought to be  You need to realize you have a headache to take an Advil  If politics were about prescription it would almost always use normative reasoning  There’s an ends and there’s a means  The identification of the problem and the solution  Around judgments and choice What is description?  Identification of an issue without providing a solution  Discovery for its own sake is “basic science”  Much of science is about a positivist understanding of the world  Politics is entirely evaluative  It ignores some elements and puts primacy on others  Uncovering data and not doing anything with it  A dispassionate hands-off analysis of a problem Christian Karayannides Political Science How do we study Politics?  The importance of ideas, concepts, values and facts  Idea is something that is a creation of our own  Concepts according to John Lock was things having the same idea  Analog or equivalent to something having the same idea  Value is something that underpins are principles  Fact is an imperial truth IDEAS  Idealist vs. materialist  Attitudes are positive or negative  Behavior is how you act on that attitude  The external perception is based on the thought of ideas  The ideas that you have a belief, that belief changes attitude, that attitude changes the world  Materialist view-world is created from something real. Study that which is real not hypothetical issues  Concepts cant exist unless there is a version in reality  We cant make up concepts that have no material analog  Materialist conceptions shape the world  Ideas between the concepts in our head and the external reality outside Concepts  Helps us compose meaning on the world to make sense of it  Help us impose meaning on the world to make sense of it  Formation is an important part of out reasoning  Much of the language we use in politics is because those languages and words are quoted Sept.20.2012 Concepts  Contestable concepts, things that we cannot agree upon. Ideas around which there is disagreement. Comes from the platonic idea that the general idea is more that a proper noun  Things can share essential qualities together  There are concepts that are imbedded in our heads. They can be both clear and opaque at the same time  Context is about the semantic (what they mean to others) meaning, how those words appear in the relations to other.  Context when talking about concepts matter Values  Normative concepts that come before our action Christian Karayannides Political Science  Moral principles  Predicated on values that occur before the behavior  In policy making policy is really about the manifestation of values  Policy are end points of values  The best predictor of the future is what happened in the past-path dependency  Sometimes laws are clear indicators of values  There is a hierarchy of needs when thinking about concepts  Policy follows value Facts  Describe things  Normative projections tell us how things should be  When talking about policies we are thinking about ends, goals, policy outcomes, changing behaviors  We must connect that end with a description (identify the problem)  Sometimes facts are only partially true-congenial truths  Congenial truths are so called facts that reinforce existing prejudices’ (manifest destiny, Canadians are a nation of peacekeepers)  When were talking about government we are always talking about society and how they behave Theoretical Approaches to Politics  Normative-about what should happen.  Positivist-the application of scientific methods in the natural sciences to the social science. Doesn’t explain it. Problem can be is this lack of normative focus because all your doing is describing  Inductive-from the specific thing to the general thing. What you observed to what will happen. Sometimes induction doesn’t work. Often leads to category error. We have to be clear that we are categorizing appropriately  Deductive-general to the specific. Hypothesis. The Power of models  Facts don’t exist independently. Provides a representation of something. Resembles things. How well do they resemble reality? Models are neither true nor false. They have just greater or lesser predictive pattern CONCLUSION  Politics usually has a state centered focus  A more expansive definition sees the state as only one actor  Politics can be understood as a method, the study of government or more broadly about power  Politics is about the interaction about government and non-government actors  The study of government or more broadly about power Christian Karayannides Political Science Week 3 Sept.24.2012 Different Ways of Understanding Power  Power and its myriad forms-the engine of politics P=W/T P(t)=I(t)xV(t)  Power=work/time Power=amps x volts  In social sciences there are no such clear formulas  Voting is an example of individual interests being aggregated at the provincial or federal level  Much of power in politics is about persuasion  Persuasion in the form of=knowledge, money, force  Power resides in the media=the main source of information, known to be agenda setters. They don’t tell us what to think but they tell us what to think about. They put on the agenda those issues to what we think will be important (implicit use of power)  Power can have unintended consequence  Power can be used to changed behavior  Power can exist on individual levels, national levels, religious levels  Socialization-comes from parents, political, religious etc. we are all shaped from these things. Has an implicit effect that takes years to manifest  Conflicts of power can come about horizontally Objectives  Demonstrate that power has different forms, resides in different places, and need to be international  Power can have an institutional form, can reside in rules (laws), formal, informal use of power that is imbedded in relationships  The capacity to bring about outcomes (changing behavior)-Lukes  Sometimes power is largely symbolic (merely being present (aircraft carrier) What are we interested in?  Its acquisition, increasing it, decreasing it, or destroying it?  Power should be seen as a network  Power is not vertical  All the elements must work together in order for power to function (a chain)  Very seldom do people have absolute power or no power at all  Structures are related to uses…different structures around power can be ill- suited for their use  People have or organizations have power?  Agency-ability of an individual to act independently of his or her own free will Christian Karayannides Political Science Power in institutions or people?  We are focused on the balance of individuals and government forums  Who has responsibility and who has agency?  Do we need to separate the act from the environment?  What happens when nation states can exert power over cooperation’s?  We need to understand power as embedded in practice, but also used by leaders. Three Forms of Power 1. Power as decision making (A has power over B if A can get B to do something he/she wants)  Exists at a individual level, a larger level, and a state level  Can exercise power by NOT making a decision 2. Power as Agenda setting (the way in which issues are framed wither though language or action)  Framing can be as simple as a powerful visual image or metaphor  Can be visual or verbal  These focus on creating the context of the decision  The language we use effects the outcome  The language of agenda setting is one of the most powerful forms of framing (Abortion debate. Both pro-life & pro-choice)  Not about decions, but setting up the context to make those decisions Christian Karayannides Political Science Week 4: October 1-5 The Power of Framing  Power assumes that power is about making decision  Power provides the context for decisions (Canadian tire-framing)  Tries to condition and shape the terms of how we think about something: it is the context  Language shapes our preferences  The way things are framed affect choices and preferences  Options are presented in different ways  Disjunction between the stated goal and the reality (the body shop-animal testing) Power as though control  Stephen Lukes: third face of power  The effectiveness of thought control is that is has this powerful presence that is not know  Effective because we don’t know it  If we know it its not effective  Ideological in doctrinarian  Hegemony  Shape needs and shape wants  Creates values which we believe exist naturally-natural hegemony (nationalism,)  Hegemony has a political function to divert attention from real political problems  Why is this thought control? Because it shapes the environment and the context in which things matter.  Around the broadest set about context in which decisions are made  The latent function-a secondary function  Manifest function-imbedded in the institutions. Much more illusive  Thought control can have an important purpose in the sense of having a latent function  Can also have a manifest function which is the focus in politics-the institutional purpose that the power serves  Power resides in institutions or cultural norms  Tries to make distinction among class to  Ideological cultural hegemony-ideas and practices taking on a different form to serve a different purpose  Our behavior and beliefs are often at odds with society  There are biases that are unknown to us (both good and bad)  Ideological thought control has many forms Christian Karayannides Political Science On what is power based?  Consent-implicit or explicit (you give power to someone by acknowledging that persons source of power)  Can be a result of a charismatic leader-give consent because you feel a powerful sway by this leader  Power passed on coercion-another form of power. Can be the power of a tyrant. Power of a gun. Lack of consent  If we are coerced we may not give our free will  Authority-can be an appeal to natural power (coach who was an Olympic athlete)  Earned authority-(dawn residence)-authority based on power given  In authority-say they are delegated power by some virtue  An authority-authority based on some specific knowledge they have Descriptive Characteristics of Power  Size-the scope and the degree to which you can influence others. Interested in how much power someone has. Someone can be a in a position of power and not be able to exercise it/ can share it/ can have a significant amount of power  Distribution-how it is shared. Concentration. How much they have and how much they have in comparison to others  Scope-interested in reach. Whether the state ought to have particular powers in areas  Domain-the place. Where does power lye. The locus of power. Where is the appropriate place where someone in power should exercise their power What are the different kinds of power?  Economic-structure of society  Many people believe if your poor you don’t have power. There is an index (poverty line). If you spend more than 70% of income on food/shelter/clothing you are below the poverty line   Personal-the individuals who have the ability to persuade other individuals. Whether lobbyist in Canada have to register with the federal government. Power resides in individuals  Political-power resides in the state. How we limit and control what decisions are made. Always through the state  None of these are separate  All interconnected Christian Karayannides Political Science Conclusion  Power can be intentional or embedded within a structure  Can lye with an individual Authority & Legitimacy-“The right to command”(oxford dict)  Authority is the right to exercise power Origins of the study of authority-Max Weber’s three kinds of authority Three ideal types of authority  1. Traditional authority-an example is patriarchy  2. Charismatic authority-power based on personal qualities. (age, speech). Authority that is invested in personal qualities. (political leaders, religious leaders, celebrities). Able to create connections based on personal qualities  3.Legal/rational authority-embodied in something as mundane as rules. For Weber the existence of a rule represents legal/rational authority.  Pope: traditional form of authority, very powerful/charismatic form of authority (a lot from the office that he holds) The different kinds of authority: De jure vs. De facto authority  De jure-authority based on powers of an office. (an authority)  De Facto-in reality/ in fact. Can be authority based on expertise (in authority)  Perceived power sometimes trumps de jure authority Christian Karayannides Political Science Week 5 (October 9-12) When do states lose legitimacy? Popular Uprisings States loose legitimacy through elite crisis  Watergate-members of the Republican Party were asked to break into the Watergate hotel. Led to president Nixon being impeached  Nixon is an example of an elite crisis-a challenge against the highest member of government. Causes people to loose trust in the president but most importantly the institution  Universal distain for what he was doing  Clinton-was about his behavior not his role in office  Legitimacy can be challenged at the elite level  Legitimacy is around the office not the office holder  Canada’s Coalition Crisis-Stephen Harper PM had a minority conservative government for 2 ½ years. There was an election in 2008 (Oct 14), the conservatives were re-elected with a minority government. If you don’t have a majority of seats you require opposition support. Repealed the political subsidies. Liberals relied on that support for their existence. Feasibility of bringing down the government? Vote of non-confidence November 27, 2008. If conservatives lost they must resign. Because they were only in power 6 weeks the Governor General could deny the conservatives a right to another election. PM asks for a prorogation (timeout), allows for all the bills to be swiped away, would avoid vote of non-confidence. Governor General can accept the PM’s request or she can deny it, as it was only 6 weeks. She could rely on historical precedence or listen to PM. She allows the PM’s request  Reminds us about when is the state legitimate Economic Crisis  Is there a tension between capitalism and democracy?  Democracy stresses equality  Capitalism stresses inequality. Based on economic foundation.  Democracy has equality as its ends, a form of regulating society, is largely silent with the role of the state and economics  The tension is about different assumptions around values Conclusion  Authority and its realm provokes ideological disagreement  Legitimacy is necessary for the stability of any political system but may be manufactured  States can lose legitimacy so all states manufacture legitimacy  Western democracies all manufacture legitimacy Christian Karayannides Political Science Ideology (Week 5) “An action oriented system of beliefs”  Ideology is generally something which is slow to change  One must not be ideological consistent on everything, however there is a core-belief that transcends throughout  They have less or more predictive capacity  Helps to see the world in different ways Objectives  To explain ideology and discuss how ideology is formed  Debates about ideology are really proxies for the goals of politics and the means to achieve those goals  Important because they offer signpost to how we think  The don’t create they are a product of our beliefs  Ideology as glasses-have to be particular to what you want to see, different lenses allow us to see different things. Have greater or lesser abilities  Ideology is particular to certain objectives Elements of ideology  Systematic-coherent, about beliefs of the state, product of the brooder systemic beliefs.  Normative & Programmatic-how we ought to behave and how we do behave. Provides us with values but also tells us what is right and wrong (religious). Offers prospective, allows us to give sense to our experience and shape our experience in certain ways  Offers Perspective-tells us who we are and how we relate to one another in the world. Shapes our experience. Stand-point-analysis (feminist say you can only be a woman to understand what feminism is about), offers a belief that is exclusive Mapping Ideology IdealDiagnosisprescription Christian Karayannides Political Science Ideology Nature of Society Problem Prescription Liberalism  Society is  State infringes on  Minimize the role comprised of individual lives to of the state and individuals who much allow the are brought  Enhancive role of individual to together the state that flourish on their  Human beings are inhibits personal own perfectible liberty Conservatism  Believe that there  Change. We want  Technological is a hierarchy in to slow down change/rapid society. Some change change the people are better prescription is the able to make idea that the state decisions needs to care for  Society is those who are least well off comprised of groups  Some people are better then others  Inherent inequality  State that cares for you (paternalistic) Marxism  Society is  A wage economy is  Eradication of comprised of class necessarily capitalism which is based on exploitive  Return to a place your relationship  Under capitalism where they is no to the means of we work to live exploitation production  Between production and the means of production Socialism  Argues that there  Equalize the  Increase the level are cleavages in inequalities in of state society but we do resources involvement in not need to get the economy ride of them  State can control  Based on means of inequalities production Christian Karayannides Political Science Nationalism  Not the  We live in a  The splitting up individual, not globalized world of nation states group, but nation which eradicates and the same  Identify with our borders and time becoming nation creates a more globalized  State and nation mcdonladization are separate of the world  Ideology is like a road map it tells us how to get from here to there. No agreement on where here is or there is. What Gives rise to ideology?  Socialization- relationship with family, friends, material conditions we live in, a lived reality,  Perception of a problem-the main issue What was the perceived problem?  Liberalism-the increasing role of the state  Conservatism-society was changing didn’t have the institutions to deal with it  Marxism-  Feminism-there is something unequal. (During times of war)  Socialism-perception of inequality Conclusion  Ideology is a systemic study of beliefs and ideas  Ideology may have a negative or neutral connotation Christian Karayannides Political Science Week 6-Notes October 15-19 Democracy (A complex response to a simple question-who should rule?)  Authority, power, *one person one vote, authority  Greeks started democracy-only men could vote who own land, father had to be a citizen, political turmoil, accountability Who wins an election?  Person who gets the most amount of votes  In Canada—someone can win more seats yet have fewer amount of votes, one by different margins in each riding, winning an election by one or 9000 votes is the same, how are preferences (democratic vehicle) turns into our elected representatives, no relationship between % of vote and % of seats  Huge anomaly’s that distort preferences Occupy movement  What were there? Were they radicals? Was there an eclectic array of students? Was there a central cause? Democracy as a Contested Terms  The answer to what democracy is, is up for interpretation  Rule of the people-etymology  Everyone has the same kinds of resources and access the same resources  Democratic culture-one that is liberated from arbitrary culture  Reasons have to be supported by the people  “Democratic government means people freely chosen by and responsible to the government,”(John Plamentaz)  Freely chosen, the citizens choose the democratic government, but that democratic government is responsible to those citizens Christian Karayannides Political Science 1. Democracy as sovereignty of the people?  Ultimate legal authority within a territory  No higher body that can take away that authority  Governments have complete authority with a jurisdiction  But do they? —United Nations (constraint on power of states), the governments power is within the territory, monopoly on violence (coercive power on that state)  Internal (organizations) and external constraints (UN)  Corporations are legal citizens (can limit their behavior only to certain extent)  Courts can limit what governments do  Who the people are? –Plato said democracy is mob rule (unwise laws), who the people are vary, a discussion about who are the people who should make those decisions, interpretation, sovereignty of the people  Who should rule? –A product of the system we have  What rules should govern who should rule? –Not transparent, the results we get sometimes don’t show the true inputs we have, 2. Democracy as “majority rule” or rule of groups?  The struggle for power is the struggle between those groups  Or we can think of it as majority rule—how do we understand what a majority is?  How do we balance competing minority interests with the interest of the while?  Can the majority be wrong?  We needs to balance those with the interest of the community as a whole  Liberals say these minority opinions need to be represented 3. Democracy has a moral Justification  About providing’s checks and balances on competing ideas  Based on the “general will”  Democracy can be understood as having these three broad ideas Representative Vs. Direct Democracy as Limited Participation  The consequences limited participation  Representative democracy is indirect democracy  Participation is limited to act of voting—choosing who will rule on their behalf  Does not mirror society  We do not have mirror representation (you take a group of Canadians and you allow representatives to represent all the diversity of Canada)  Representative democracy rarely represents the makeup of who we are Christian Karayannides Political Science  Are participation is choice is limited to very few categories (parties)  Our choices are limited when choosing out leaders (a X in a box) Representative vs. Direct Democracy  Sees democracy as a process and a style of living  Assumptions that underline direct democracy  Involved in collaborative decision making  Cooperative  They ask more of the individual in day to day activities  1) Demand more of their citizens  2) Assumption that people all have the same capacity to contribute  Democracy as a way of life, not limited to elections  Based on direct, unmediated, and continuous participation  No agent or organization between “you” and the ruler  It is unweeding, non-workable, and makes certain assumptions some would take for granted Direct Democracy  Avoids politicians-no one speaking on your behalf  Could be a good or bad thing (may not want to trust the average person to make that decision)  Encourages participation? Provides the means to do so but says nothing about the individuals capacity  Assumes that that’s something you do  True reflection of the public? The group is the public, there is no slippage between the elected representatives and the citizens  Better informed citizenry  Is really a way in which you can create an informed citizenry  Deliberation is better for the public good  Foregoing self interest for greater good  Has strong legitimacy, no vested interest  Arrived at a decision where there is unanimity  Some would say creates mob-rule  People who are uninformed and don’t know the issue  Mob rule?  Role of expertise?  Linking ideas about democracy with assumptions of capacity of individuals  Lack of interest  Unstable-even with knowledge people will continue to make the wrong decision Christian Karayannides Political Science October.18.2012  Our version of representative democracy is called liberal democracy  Liberal-refers to a doctrine of a kind of representative democracy Elements of Liberal Democracy  Personal freedom—silence of the law  Freedom of something that does not exist—freedom because there are no rules saying we “don’t” (freedom of speech)  Freedom is around our personal liberty  1) Liberty-absence of the law. Individual to do what he or she wants to do. No law that governs what you do in your “bedroom.”  2) Freedom to do something—the idea that you cannot really have freedom unless you have an opportunity to exercise that freedom.  Freedom is freedom to—positive freedom-policies in place to maximize opportunities (freedom to, healthcareequalizing access to a resource that is scares.  Liberty is freedom from—negative freedom—laws from the state that allow you to do things (freedom from, absence of the law)freedom of speech  “Freedom can mean freedom of the strong to down the weak following market rules or effective freedom of all”-C.B. MacPherson  State has to provide means  For a liberal it is all about maximizing the individuals self happiness  State/society should have to say in what the goals/ends are What Areas Should be Free  The harm principle-when your conduct does not harm others, government has not right to control it  Great example of limitations on free speech “The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.”  A slippery slope this principle Negative Liberty  Liberty is the absence of interference  State not being involved Freedom is Positive  Freedom can be advanced by the state by making available resources and supports citizens need  The freedom to do something, has to be bound by the support of the state in order to achieve that goal  Active involvement of the state, to get them the right opportunity Christian Karayannides Political Science Equality  The “veil” hides class, social status, gender, intelligence of themselves and others  Equality in practice=veil of ignorance (Rawls) Equality of What?  Equality of citizenship—two men may be equal as the law treats them equally. This is procedural.  Equality of right—about removing any inequalities that may not allow them to exercise their right. Equal before the law  Equality in resources needed to live a good life—what does one-person need. Societies that are equal have a higher degree of happiness. Liberal Democracy  The state performs a “night watchmen role”  Will take action if there is a need  Should keep hands off Limited Government  Limited government so people can achieve their own dreams. Individuals can choose their own course of happiness  Role of the state is to prevent harm  Only gets involved when there is reason to (no interest in the outcome of the game)  For classical liberals the state is adjudicating conflicting interest to society What is Limited?  State is limited by determining what they understand to be necessary  Debates around the role of government are debates around what should
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