The readings highlights that different electoral systems have a signi cant impact on electoral outcomes. The distribution of the canadian population establishes con icting opinions on the principle of representation by population. The effect of this distribution is most evident in drawing electoral boundaries and determining an appropriate electoral system. Another signi cant theme in the readings is that electoral systems are closely linked to distributions of power in canadian government. Party system in canada by allan cairns compliments ideas presented in chapter 13 about the advantages for existing parties and disadvantages newer entrants in elections. Cairns expands on this concept by identifying the qualities of existing and newer parties that cause this effect. In example, the strong sectoral support that most existing parties are able to garner is accentuated by the single member plurality system.